Final Exam Study Guide 2 -- Spring 2019 -- comprehensive exam on campus -- Part 2.docx - Final Exam Study Guide(Part 2 of 3 Introduction to Sociology

Final Exam Study Guide 2 -- Spring 2019 -- comprehensive exam on campus -- Part 2.docx

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Final Exam Study Guide (Part 2 of 3) Introduction to Sociology Online Chapter 6 study guide What is a group (also called a social group )? Understand how it is different from a category or a crowd . Understand the main differences between primary group s and secondary groups. Know the differences between instrumental leadership and expressive leadership . Understand the three styles of leadership ( authoritarian , democratic , and laissez-faire ) in terms of their decision-making styles. Know that pressure to conform to a group is especially strong in small groups. With regard to Asch’s conformity experiment, what percentage of Asch’s subjects conformed to a group that was giving obviously incorrect answers, and why did they do so? Overall, what did Milgram’s different research studies show about how likely people are to follow the orders or suggestions of (1) authority figures (2) groups of ordinary individuals? (I won’t be asking for specific percentages.) What did Janis’s research suggest about experts and group pressure? Understand groupthink . What are reference groups ? What is the point of Stouffer’s research on reference groups? Understand the differences between ingroups and outgroups .
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What are networks ? What’s the "largest network of all"? Which kinds of people have the largest networks? What are formal organizations ? Understand the three types of formal organizations identified by Amitai Etzioni. According to Max Weber, what is tradition ? What is rationality ? What is the rationalization of society ? What is bureaucracy ? Understand the six key characteristics of bureaucracy ("the ideal bureaucratic organization"), as identified by Max Weber. Understand these problems associated with bureaucracy: bureaucratic alienation, bureaucratic ritualism, bureaucratic inertia, oligarchy Understand what scientific management involves. Understand the four organizational principles involved in the McDonaldization of society , as identified by George Ritzer. Chapter 8 study guide (and one article) Know what deviance and stigma are. Understand Merton’s strain theory . What does he mean by the terms innovation , ritualism , retreatism , and rebellion ? How did Cloward and Ohlin’s differential opportunity theory (referred to in your book as one deviant subculture theory ) extend Merton’s theory? What is labeling theory , and what does it stress? Understand the difference between primary devianc e and secondary deviance . Understand what a degradation ceremony is.
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Macionis notes that once a person is stigmatized, people around that person may engage in retrospective labeling and projective labeling . Understand these two types of labeling.
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