Chapter 11 Notes.docx - Chapter 11 Notes Chapter 11 Marine Pollution Sewage surfer A seahorse latches onto a plastic cotton swab To ride currents

Chapter 11 Notes.docx - Chapter 11 Notes Chapter 11 Marine...

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Chapter 11 Notes Chapter 11 Marine Pollution Sewage surfer : A seahorse latches onto a plastic cotton swab. To ride currents, seahorses clutch drifting seagrass or other debris. In the polluted waters off the Indonesian island of Sumbawa, this seahorse latched onto a plastic cotton swab— “a photo I wish didn’t exist,” says award-winning wildlife photographer Justin Hofman, who captured the image. Essential Learning Concepts AT THE END OF THIS CHAPTER, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. 11.1 Explain how pollution is defined. 2. 11.2 Specify the marine environmental problems associated with petroleum pollution. 3. 11.3 Specify the marine environmental problems associated with non-petroleum chemical pollution. 4. 11.4 Specify the marine environmental problems associated with non-point source pollution, including trash. 5. 11.5 Describe actions you can take to help prevent marine pollution. 6. 11.6 Specify the environmental problems associated with biological pollution. “Most people think of oceans as so immense and bountiful that it’s difficult to imagine any significant impact from human activity. Now we’ve begun to recognize how much of an impact we do have.” Jane Lubchenco, marine ecologist (2002) When one looks out over the vast expanse of the ocean, it’s hard to believe that it could be in serious trouble because of human activities. Throughout human history, the oceans have been known to possess a tremendous ability to assimilate waste materials, yet there is a limit to the amount of society’s waste the oceans can hold. Earth’s rapidly expanding human population has increased the amount of marine pollution, which puts an ever-increasing stress on the marine environment. As a result, negative effects in the marine environment are now being noticed worldwide, particularly in the coastal ocean and enclosed bodies of water where water circulation and vertical mixing are limited. These negative effects, along with impacts on land, have become large enough for humans to finally acknowledge our role in altering our planet’s ecosystems on a global scale. In the United States, for example, comprehensive reports such as those from the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy and the
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Pew Oceans Commission have identified an emerging national crisis regarding damage being done to the oceans, calling for a plan of action to restore vital ocean habitats. Marine pollution comes from a variety of sources including marine transportation (see Diving Deeper 7.1 ), ocean mining operations, fishing practices, sewage sludge disposed at sea, large volumes of polluted runoff from land, and increasing use of seawater for human benefit (for example, using seawater as a coolant in coastal power plants). Marine pollution also comes from accidental spills of petroleum, industrial waste, toxic chemicals (such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane [DDT], polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], and mercury), and trash from just about everybody. These pollutants—both alone or in combination with each other—often have severe deleterious effects on individual organisms and may even affect entire marine ecosystems. In addition, there is a growing
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  • Fall '08
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