12 - NUTRITION AND MICROBIOME.pdf - NUTRITION METABOLISM • Nutrition and microbiome The microbiome is integral to human physiology health and disease

12 - NUTRITION AND MICROBIOME.pdf - NUTRITION METABOLISM...

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NUTRITION & METABOLISM Nutrition and microbiome
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The microbiome is integral to human physiology, health, and disease.
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DIET AND ORAL MICROBIOTA GO HAND IN HAND The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized. Recent genomic studies addressing the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota supports the notion that there is a striong link between diet, oral microbiota and chronic diseases.
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DIET AND ORAL MICROBIOTA GO HAND IN HAND Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets (beginning ~10,000 years before the present) and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (in ~1850). Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained unexpectedly constant between Neolithic and medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiotic ecosystems are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in postindustrial lifestyles.
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Composition of the human gut microbiota Functions of the GI microbiota: nutrient processing and availability Immunity and GI microbiota Nutrients, bacterial competition, and colonization Nutrient niches favoring pathogenic gut colonization Microbiota manipulation of host's behavior? The microbiota in fasting and malnutrition Maintaining the GI microbiota during acute infections Pathologies with altered GI microbiome Front Microbiol. 2017 Jul 17;8:1265. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01265. eCollection 2017 HUMAN GUT MICROBIOTA
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Composed of trillions of individual microbes, the human gut microbiota has adapted to the uniquely diverse environments found in the human intestine. Quickly responding to the variances in the ingested food, the microbiota interacts with the host via reciprocal biochemical signaling to coordinate the exchange of nutrients and proper immune function. Host and microbiota function as a unit which guards its balance against invasion by potential pathogens and which undergoes natural selection. Disturbance of the microbiota composition, or dysbiosis, is often associated with human disease, indicating that, while there seems to be no unique optimal composition of the gut microbiota, a balanced community is crucial for human health.
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  • Fall '18
  • MEHMET CANDAS

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