8 - INTEGRATION AND CONTROL OF METABOLISM.pdf - NUTRITION METABOLISM • Integration of metabolism SPECIALIZATION OF ORGAN FUNCTIONS NUTRIENT-RESPONSIVE

8 - INTEGRATION AND CONTROL OF METABOLISM.pdf - NUTRITION...

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NUTRITION & METABOLISM Integration of metabolism
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SPECIALIZATION OF ORGAN FUNCTIONS NUTRIENT-RESPONSIVE CONTROL OF CELLULAR METABOLISM , GROWTH, AND PROLIFERATION HORMONAL AND NEUROENDROCINE CONTROL OF HOMEOSTATIS AND APPETITE
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SPECIALIZATION OF ORGAN FUNCTIONS
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METABOLIC INTEGRATION Energy and reducing power is delivered from catabolism to anabolism in the form of ATP and NADPH, and ATP and NADPH are regenerated from ADP and NADP+ via catabolic reactions.
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Organ systems in complex multicellular organisms have arisen to carry out specific functions Such specialization depends on coordination of metabolic responsibilities among organs so that the organism as a whole can thrive Organs differ in the metabolic fuels they prefer as substrates for energy production INTEGRATION OF METABOLISM AND SPECIALIZATION OF ORGANS
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INTEGRATION OF METABOLISM AND SPECIALIZATION OF ORGANS Each organ has a unique metabolic profile. The metabolic patterns of the brain, muscle, adipose tissue, kidney, and liver are strikingly different in terms of their use of fuels to meet their energy needs.
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The major fuel depots in the body: glycogen in liver and muscle triacylglycerols in adipose tissue protein, mostly in skeletal muscle The usual order of preference of energy in the body: glycogen > triacylglycerol > protein However, it should be noted that protein turnover and resultant availability of amino acids for anapleorotic reactions are critical during energy demand once glycogen reserves are depleted. Amino acid use for energy involves transamination and deamination processes. INTEGRATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM Distribution of body weight to specific tissues and organs
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During partitioning of metabolic fuels according to priority: Some processes are essential for survival and cannot be compromised, Others can be reduced to achieve energy savings, Reproduction and fat storage can be maladaptive when calories are scarce and have a low priority for energy distribution INTEGRATION OF ENERGY METABOLISM
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INTEGRATION OF METABOLISM AND SPECIALIZATION OF ORGANS
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INTEGRATION OF METABOLISM AND SPECIALIZATION OF ORGANS Relationship between the utilization and production of substrates by different cells in the human body: Red blood cells rely on glucose for energy and convert glucose to lactate. The brain uses glucose and ketone bodies for energy. Adipose tissue uses fatty acids and glucose for energy. The liver primarily uses fatty acid oxidation for energy. Muscle cells use fatty acids, glucose, and amino acids as energy sources.
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METABOLISM AND SPECIALIZATION OF ORGANS Brain
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METABOLISM AND SPECIALIZATION OF ORGANS Brain Glucose is virtually the sole fuel for the human brain, except during prolonged starvation.
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  • Fall '18
  • MEHMET CANDAS

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