Lecture_4_Mass_and_Mole_Fractions (1).pptx - Chapter 3 Process and Process Variables Processes and Process Variables • Process – operation(s by

Lecture_4_Mass_and_Mole_Fractions (1).pptx - Chapter 3...

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Chapter 3: Process and Process Variables
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Processes and Process Variables Process – operation(s) by which a particular objective is accomplished Input or feed – material that enters a process Output or product – material that leaves a process Processes occur in process units. Multiple process streams may enter or leave a process. Chemical engineers are involved in the design and operation of processes
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Sample Process Butter Sugar Flour Cookies
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A Refinery Process
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Mass and Volume Density = mass per unit volume (g/cm 3 ) Specific volume = volume per unit mass (cm 3 /g) (inverse of density) Densities of pure solids and liquids are essentially independent of pressure and vary slightly with temperature Perry’s and Felder and Rousseau are great references for finding densities
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Density – an excellent conversion factor The density of CCl 4 is 1.595 g/cm 3 . What is the volume occupied by 6.20 lb m of CCl 4 ? (Note: 1 lb m = 454 g) 6.20 lb m 454 g 1 cm 3 = 1760 cm 3 1 lb m 1.595 g
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Specific Gravity Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance at a specific condition SG = ρ / ρ ref
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Specific Gravity The most common reference for solids and liquids is water at 4 °C ρ H 2 O(l) (4 °C) = 1.000 g/cm 3 = 1000. kg/m 3 = 62.43 lb m /f 3
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Specific Gravity To convert a substance’s SG to its density, simply multiply the SG by the reference density. Example: What is the density in g/cm 3 of a substance with a SG of 0.7?
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  • Spring '08
  • wetzel

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