Why_many_children_are_still_out_of_schoo.pdf - International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028-9324 Vol 16 No 3 Jun 2016 pp 635-645 ©

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International Journal of Innovation and Applied Studies ISSN 2028-9324 Vol. 16 No. 3 Jun. 2016, pp. 635-645 © 2016 Innovative Space of Scientific Research Journals Corresponding Author: Janet Presnilla-Espada 635 Why many children are still out of school? Janet Presnilla-Espada Professional Education Unit, Leyte Normal University, P. Paterno St. Tacloban City 6500, Philippines Copyright © 2016 ISSR Journals. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A BSTRACT : The main purpose of this paper was to present a causal mechanism that would explain the phenomenon behind dropout among primary students. Using a Time Series design, the study analysed a nine-year series of multivariate data using advanced methodological methods such as factorial analysis, regression analysis, anomalous detection and path analysis the study specifically tried to identify relationships among and the variables and determine which factors are directly or indirectly linked to dropout. Results of the analyses showed that child labor was the strongest determinant of dropout while indirect factors were primary completion, enrolment, employment and government expenditure. Although GDP was not found to be a strong factor it appeared to have a direct impact on the other variables that influenced dropout. This may therefore imply that low economy could be the unseen phantom behind dropout radiating to an array of other factors. Child labor may just be an outward manifestation of a serious economic problem which, if not resolved could lead more children to the periphery; joining the ranks of child labor instead of learning inside the classroom. K EYWORDS : Dropout, Child Labor, Unemployment, Primary Completion, Government, Expenditure, Enrolment, Multivariate Data Analysis. 1 I NTRODUCTION One of the greatest measures in the spectrum of government programs is investing on human capital [1], [2]. Well- trained human resource means greater productivity and an increased standard of living for all. Considering the children as the country’s future manpower, any government wishing to maximize its potentials would capitalize highly on basic education [3]. Research shows that high quality primary care and education promote children’s early learning and later success, assuring their families of economic stability [4], [5]. As a vital dimension of empowerment and poverty reduction, basic education holds a prominent place within the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) [6]. T he Incheon Declaration 2015 accentuates the provision of 12 years of free inclusive, equitable quality primary and secondary education [7]. The same goal is reflected in the broadened Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that replaced the earlier narrowed MDGs in September 2015 [6].
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