Literature - A Latin word “litera” which means letter. This is a body of literary productions, either oral, written or visual containing imaginative language that realistically portrays thoughts, emotions and experiences of the human condition.
2 Major Types of Literature I. Prose - “prosa” which means straightforward. It consists written works within the common flow of conversation presented in a straightforward manner. Types of Prose a.Novel This is a long narrative divided into chapters. The events may be taken from true-to-life stories and spans for a long period of time. There are many characters involved.
b . Short Story This is a narrative involving one or more characters, one plot and one single impression. Examples:
c. Plays This is presented on a stage, is divided into acts and each act has many scenes.
d. Legends These are fictitious narratives, usually about origins. It provides historical information regarding the culture and views of particular group of people or country. Examples: The Bikol Legend Legend of Pineapple Legend of “Makahiya”
e. Folk tales A traditional narrative, usually anonymous, and handed down orally. Example: The adventures of Juan The Hawk and the Hen Fairy Tales
f. Fables (special type of folk tale) These are also fictitious and they deal with animals and inanimate things who speak and act like people. Their purpose is to enlighten the minds of children to events that can mold their ways and attitudes. Examples: Aesop’s Fables The Lion and the Mouse
g. Myths A traditional sacred story, typically revolving around the activities of gods and heroes, which aim to explain a natural phenomenon or cultural practice. Example: The Story of Cupid and Psyche The Fall of Troy The Myth about Creation - Tagalog
h. Anecdotes These are merely products of the writer’s imagination and the main aim is to bring out lessons to the reader. “The Moth and the Lamp” – Dr. Jose Rizal The Best Advice I ever Had
i. Essay This expresses the viewpoint or opinion of the writer about a particular problem or event. The best example of this is the Editorial page of a newspaper. Examples: Of Studies – Francis Bacon On Doors – Christopher Morley
j. Biography This deals with the life of a person which may be about himself, his autobiography or that of others. Example : Cayetano Arellano – Socorro O. Albert
k. News This is a report of everyday events in society, government, science and industry, accidents etc., happening nationally or not.
l. Oration This is a formal treatment of a subject and is intended to be spoken in public. It appeals to the intellect, to the will or to the emotions of the audience. Examples: “Because of What We Are, and What We Believe” I have A Dream – Martin Luther King
II. Poetry It is an imaginative awareness of experience expressed through meaning, sound, and rhythmic language choices as to evoke emotional response.
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