Chapter 8 - Primate and Hominin Origins ● ● ● ● Hominins Colloquial term for members of the tribe Hominini which includes all bipedal hominoids

Chapter 8 - Primate and Hominin Origins ● ● ● ●...

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Primate and Hominin Origins Hominins - Colloquial term for members of the tribe Hominini, which includes all bipedal hominoids back to the divergence with African great apes. Biocultural - Pertaining to the concept that biology makes culture possible and that culture influences biology. Hominins, of course, evolved from earlier primates The earliest members of the human family were confined to Africa Early Primate Evolution The earliest possible primates date to the Paleocene (65–56 mya) and belong to a large and diverse group of primitive mammals called the plesiadapiforms. Eocene Primates: Closer Connections to Living Primates the landmasses that connect continents, as well as the water boundaries that separate them, have an obvious impact on the geographical distribution of all land animals, including primates Looking at this entire array of Eocene fossils, it’s certain that they were (1) primates; (2) widely distributed; and (3) mostly extinct by the end of the Eocene. most of the Eocene primates (including Darwinius and its close relatives) don’t appear to have been ancestral to any later primate, and they became extinct before the end of the Eocene (around 33 mya). Nevertheless, some fossil finds from late in the Eocene have derived features (such as a dental comb) that link them to modern lemurs and lorises. Archicebus achilles is now the oldest known haplorhine primate, suggesting that the tarsier and anthropoid lineages may have already split by the early Eocene. Many of the features of the skull, teeth, and limbs are similar to those of modern tarsiers, whereas the foot elements are more anthropoid-like Its long tail and hind limbs suggest that it was a tree-dwelling primate, and its small eye orbits indicate that it was diurnal, unlike modern tarsiers, which are active at night Oligocene Primates: Anthropoids Connections Most of these are Old World anthropoids, all discovered at a single locality in Egypt, the Fayum By the early Oligocene, continental drift had separated the New World (that is, the Americas) from the Old World (Africa and Eurasia). Some of the earliest Fayum species, nevertheless, may potentially be close to the ancestry of both Old and New World anthropoids. The possible roots of anthropoid evolution are illustrated by different forms from the Fayum; one is the genus Apidium. Well known at the Fayum, Apidium is represented by several dozen jaws or partial dentitions as well as many postcranial remains Postcranial - Referring to all or part of the skeleton not including the skull. The term originates from the fact that in quadrupeds, the body is in back of the head; the term literally means “behind the head.” The other genus of importance from the Fayum is Aegyptopithecus . This genus is represented by several well-preserved crania and abundant jaws and teeth.
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