BME 510 Lecture 2 Fall 19 Tissues+compartmental analysis.pdf - Lecture Two Tissues Multicellular Organisms ─ Cells are organized in cooperative

BME 510 Lecture 2 Fall 19 Tissues+compartmental analysis.pdf

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Lecture Two- Tissues Multicellular Organisms : Cells are organized in cooperative assemblies called tissues Various combinations form organs (larger ‘functional’ units) Cells and tissues are held together by extracellular matrix ( ECM - secreted extracellular macromolecules), within cells, and can migrate and interact . Cells are also kept in place by cell-cell adhesion . A tissue: a population of similar cells that performs a specific function Four basic body tissues. Nervous tissue, muscle tissue , epithelial tissue , and connective tissue Most organs contain all four tissues . Nervous tissues conduct impulses in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Muscle tissues contract; their pulling action moves the skeleton, pumps blood, and propels food through the gut. Epithelial tissues are cellular sheets that cover and line most organs. Connective tissues secrete extracellular matrices that support the body and connect its parts (like glue).
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Morphological relationships among the cells of body tissues Epithelial cells form sheets C onnective tissue cells secrete extracellular matrices that hold cells together. Muscle tissues resemble connective tissue cells that have elongated and become contractile . In nervous tissue , neurons are also elongated cells that derive from epithelia.
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Example of an organ that contains all four tissues: intestine Epithelium lines the interior and covers the exterior Smooth muscle tissue underlies the exterior covering. Connective tissues join these layers together and provide access for nerves and vessels to spread through the connective tissue and muscle. Nervous tissues conduct impulses in the brain, spinal cord, and nerves. Neurons: long, slim cells - conduct impulses. Connect with other neurons. Neuroglial cells wrap neurons with protective sheaths, regulating the flow of impulses between them. Both cell types form clusters and bundles of nerve fibers- extending throughout all organs of the body.
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Connective tissues P lenty of extracellular matrix Cells are sparsely distributed within it The matrix is rich in fibrous polymers = collagen that bear most of the mechanical stress (external or by the cells) High cell motility . Connective tissue is the glue that shapes epithelium, nerve, and muscle tissues into organ Characterized by an extensive, extracellular matrix (ECM ) that contains much fluid and relatively few cells (compared to the closely connected cells of the epithelia). The matrix is hard and rigid in bone, firm in cartilage, fibrous in facia, flexible, tough, and soft in skin, and fluid in blood. The extracellular matrix (90% in volume of the connective tissue) is composed of a fluid gel named ‘ ground substance ’, which is shaped by surrounding tissues ( amorphous ).
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