Chapter 10 Questions Answer the following questions in a mi.docx - Chapter 10 Questions Answer the following questions in a minimum of one paragraph

Chapter 10 Questions Answer the following questions in a mi.docx

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Chapter 10 Questions Answer the following questions in a minimum of one paragraph each. Chapter 10: Critical Thinking Questions 2 and 3. Chapter 10: Study Questions 1 through 4. Your paper must be formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. All sources must be properly cited in text as well as on the reference page. ATTACHED IS CHAPTER 10. THE RELEVENT QUESTIONS ARE ALSO ATTACHED!!!!ATTACHED IS THE GRDING RUBICS SO YOU KNOW WHAT MUST BE INCLUDED. ATTACHED IS THE ARTICLE Malakoff, D. (1998). Restored wetlands flunk real-world test.
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Science, 280 (5362), 371-372. Retrieved from ? accountid=32521 THAT IS NEEDED FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT. MUST USE IN-TEXT CITES AND ANSWER ALL PARTS TO ALL QUESTIONS. chapter_10_1.docx · Botkin, D. B., & Keller, E. A. (2014). Environmental science: Earth as a living planet (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc Chapter 10: Ecological Restoration 10.1 What Is Ecological restoration? Ecological restoration is defined as providing assistance to
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the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, dam- aged, or destroyed.2 Originally until near the end of the 20th century, restoration seemed simple: Just remove all human actions and let nature take care of itself. But this led to surprising and undesirable results. A classic example is the conservation of Hutcheson Memorial Forest, the last remaining known uncut, therefore primeval, forest in New Jersey. This forest has been owned since 1701 by the Met- tler family, who farmed and kept this forest as a woodlot that they never harvested, as careful family records showed. In 1954, Rutgers University obtained the forest, and ecolo- gist Murray Buell, who arranged for the purchase, planned that it would be left undisturbed and therefore would rep- resent an old-growth oak-hickory forest, the kind that was supposed to be the final endpoint of forest succession (see Chapter 6 for a discussion of succession). What was this forest supposed to be like? In 1749 to 1750, the Swedish botanist Peter Kalm traveled from Philadelphia to Montreal, collecting plants for Carl Lin- naeus. Kalm traveled through this area of New Jersey and described the forests as being composed of large oaks, hickories, and chestnuts, so free of underbrush that one could drive a horse and carriage through the woods.3 An article in Audubon in 1954 described this wood as “a
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climax forest . . . a cross-section of nature in equilibrium in which the forest trees have developed over a long pe- riod of time. The present oaks and other hardwood trees have succeeded other types of trees that went before them. Now these trees, after reaching old age, die and return their substance to the soil and help their replacements to sturdy growth and ripe old age in turn.”4 But this was not how the forest looked in the 1950s nor how it looks today (Figure 10.4). There are some old trees, many of them in poor condition, and the forest is dense with young tree stems of many sizes. Few oaks have regenerated. In the 1960s, the majority of the seedlings in the forest were maples.
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  • Fall '16
  • Christopher L. Litten, MA, Ph.D.

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