372801908-Jazz-Terms.docx - I chord chord built on the...

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I chord chord built on the first degree of the scale; known as the tonic. IV chord chord built on the fourth degree of the scale; known as the subdominant. V chord chord built on the fifth degree of the scale; known as the dominant. A A B A form the most common 32-bar popular song form, referring to melody and harmonic progression (but not text). Each portion is eight bars long, with B, the bridge, serving as the point of contrast. A = statement, A = repetition, B = contrast, A = return. A B A C form the second most common 32-bar popular song form, referring to melody and harmonic progression (but not text). Each portion is eight bars long, with the A section returning in the song's middle. Can also be considered AA' form. accelerando a gradual speeding up of tempo. acid jazz a form of contemporary music created by DJs in the 1990s, relying heavily on samples taken from jazz recordings from the 1950s and 1960s. alto saxophone one of the most common saxophones used in jazz performance, smaller and higher-pitched than the tenor. arpeggio the notes of a chord played in quick succession rather than simultaneously. arrangements composed scores for big bands, with individual parts for each musician. arco a stringed instrument (such as the string bass) played with a bow. art music a form of music with high aesthetic standards and social prestige, created by professional artists for a well educated public and insulated from the commercial world. atonal music with no key center. augmented chord an unstable chord made up of two major thirds; found in the whole-tone scale. avant-garde jazz a modernist style of jazz exploring new methods that radically oppose existing traditions; among the elements of jazz undermined by the avant-garde are rhythm, harmony, melody, structure, instrumentation, manner of presentation, and politics. backbeat a simple polyrhythm emphasizing beats 2 and 4 of a 4/4 measure (rather than 1 and 3). ballad ( 1) a slow, romantic popular song; (2) a long, early type of folk song that narrated a bit of local history. bar see measure. baritone saxophone the largest and deepest saxophone used in jazz performance. bass in the rhythm section of a jazz band, an instrument- string bass, electric bass, or tuba-that supports the harmony and plays a basic rhythmic foundation. bass clarinet a wind instrument pitched lower than a standard clarinet. bass drum the large drum front and center in a jazz drum kit, struck with a mallet propelled by a foot pedal; it produces a deep, heavy sound. bebop A style of modern jazz pioneered in the mid-1940s; it has become the basis for most contemporary jazz. bell the flared opening at the end of a brass instrument. bent notes see blue notes. big bands large jazz orchestras featuring sections of sax phones, trumpets, and trombones, prominent during the Swing Era (1930s).
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