A and P Week 5 notes(1) (4).docx - A and P Week 5 Notes Muscular System 1 General Skeletal Muscle Anatomy a Terminology i Origin(head-ceps –

A and P Week 5 notes(1) (4).docx - A and P Week 5 Notes...

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A and P Week 5 Notes Muscular System 1. General Skeletal Muscle Anatomy a. Terminology i. Origin (head; -ceps) – attachment to stationary bone(s) ii. Insertion – attachment to movable bone(s) iii. Belly – largest part of muscle between origin and insertion iv. Tendons – attach muscle to bone, etc. 1. Aponeurosis – very broad, flat tendon, usually connecting two muscles a. E.g. Epicranial aponeurosis – connects occipital and frontal bellies of the “Epicranius” or Occipitaofrontalis v. Agonist (often “prime mover”) – causes an action vi. Antagonist – works in opposition to an agonist vii. Synergitst – works with; working together; 1. E.g. a prime mover causes the major movement a. A fixator, working synergistically with the prime mover stabilizes the joint 2. Muscle Shapes – based on fascicle arrangements and orientations a. Terms: i. Fibers = muscle cells ii. Fascicles = bundle of muscle fibers b. Shapes: i. Circular – fascicles arranged in concentric circles; e.g. orbicularis oris (lips) ii. Parallel – fascicles arranged parallel to each other; e.g. trapezius; rectus abdominis iii. Convergent – fascicles converge to a common point; e.g. pectoralis major / minor
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c. Pennate – feather-like; fascicles arranged along a central tendon in the following ways: i. Unipennate – fascicles along just one edge of a tendon; e.g. semimembranous (one of the 3 hamstrings muscles) ii. Bipennate – fascicles along both sides of a tendon; e.g. recuts femoris – one of the 4 quadraceps muscles iii. Multipennate – several attachments and multiple tendons; e.g. deltoid d. Fusiform – “spindle-like”; narrow at the heads; fatter at the belly i. E.g. biceps brachii; triceps brachii 3. Principles of muscle nomenclature a. Location – pectoralis (located on the chest region); Brachii (arm); Gluteus (buttocks) b. Size – Maximus; minimus; longus; brevis c. Shape – deltoid = triangle-shaped; trapezius = shaped like a trapezoid d. Orientation – how fascicles are oriented with respect to each other and / or the body i. Rectus – “straight”; fascicles are arranged in straight, parallel lines; i.e. parallel fascicle arrangement, but here, used as a nomenclature term 1. E.g. rectus femoris ii. Oblique – at an angle 1. E.g. abdominal obliques e. Origin / insertion i. Sternocleidomastoid 1. Sterno – one head originates on the sternum 2. Cleido – one head originates on the clavicle 3. Mastoid – insertion on the mastoid process of the temporal bone f. Number of heads (-ceps)
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i. Biceps brachii – two heads making up the origin attachments ii. Triceps brachii – three heads g. Function / muscle action i. Adductor – movement toward the midline ii. Abductor – movement away from the midline iii. Masseter – prime mover of the jaw; mastication (chewing). 4. Muscle movements and lever actions /classes, etc.
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  • Fall '07
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