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1Prostate Specific AntigenJennifer AllenNURS 6512- Advanced Health Assessment and Diagnostic ReasoningSeptember 10, 2019
2Prostate Specific AntigenProstate is the most common sight for cancer in men. Prostate cancer is the secondleading cancer cause of death in American men. Statistical research finds that 1 in 9 men will bediagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime and estimated 31, 620 deaths will occur this year(American Cancer Society, 2019) Prostate specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test used todetected prostate cancer and other conditions of the prostrate. The purpose of this paper is toevaluate the PSA test for the detection of cancer and other conditions. The measures of validity,reliability, recommendation, and controversy will be addressed.Prostate Cancer DetectionProstate cancer screening can be conducted by performing a digital rectal examinationand acquiring a PSA level (Łupicka-Słowik, A., et al, 2019) PSA is secreted by the prostategland. In patients with prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostatitis, elevatedlevels of PSA are present (Park, D. J., 2019) PSA can be used to diagnose, detect reoccurrence,develop prognosis, and monitor the therapy progress (Park, D. J., et al, 2019) Most men have aPSA of less than 4 ng/ml. Higher than that may be an indication of a problem within the prostate.PSA concentration measurements is a leading method for diagnosing prostate cancer(Łupicka-Słowik, A., et al, 2019). PSA is present in cancerous and noncancerous cells. PSAcirculates in the blood in attached, to certain blood proteins, or unattached, free. A higher PSAlevel with a lower free PSA, may be the most likely that the diagnosis will be prostate cancer(Mayo clinic, 2019). If prostate cancer is suspected, an invasive procedure that can be performedis a transrectal prostate biopsy can be performed (Łupicka-Słowik, A., et al, 2019). Those at risk