Age of Exploration & Discovery.pdf - EUROPEAN COLONIZATION...

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EUROPEAN COLONIZATION
WHY COLUMBUS? It is legitimate to ask why Christopher Columbus is so importanthe did not discoveranything that had not already been found There were rich civilizations in the Americas before European contact The Norse had established a colony on Greenland 500 years before Columbus (and Columbus knew it) Europeans were fishing near the Americas and may have stumbled upon North America before 1492 Columbus is important because his voyage in 1492 changed the course of world history in a way previous events had not
INTERNATIONAL TRADE The Age of Discovery and colonization grew out of the desire to open up new international trade routes to Asia Europeans wanted to increase profit from trade in Asian luxury goods by finding direct sea routes For example, in 1492, black pepper was literally worth its weight in gold The closure of the Silk Road in 1453 by the seizure of Constantinople by the Ottomans & the break-up of the Mongol empire accelerated this, along with significant social and political changes
SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHANGES The rising group of middle class merchants were intent on opening this trade to increase profit Monarchs devoted to the concepts of New Monarchy and state consolidation wanted to open trade to bring revenue Europeans wanted to bypass the Muslims, Hindus and Italians who dominated existing trade routes to maximize profit Europeans wanted to open new markets for European trade goods they felt were being unfairly denied European Christians saw it as a duty to evangelize new lands Europeans were aware the world was round and long voyages to Asia were possible Europeans had the technological ability to make long ocean voyages. They had the caravel and the necessary skills in navigation, map-making and sailing
PRINCE HENRY Exploration was pioneered by Portugal This was largely due to the vision of Prince Henry the Navigator Henry recognized the possibility of exploring and trading with Africa as the means of opening direct trade with Asia Once accomplished, Portugal would dominate that trade He convinced his family to fund a school of navigation and pay for expeditions to explore a route to Asia by going around Africa
SUGAR & TRADE Portugal was willing to do what Henry asked because of potential profits Italians had pioneered vastly profitable sugar plantations and Portugal had copied this Italians denied Portugal access to the Slavic workersslaveswho made this profitable Opening commerce with West African kings would open access to African slaves and rich trade currently dominated by Muslims In the end, Portugal would have trade with both Africa and Asia Note this is the beginning of changes in the scope and severity of African slavery driven by the plantation system
STAGED EXPLORATION The Portuguese method is known as staged exploration Portugal took the exploration and opening of trade posts in stages

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