HMR 360.pdf - Lecture Notes after Quiz#1 Date I Learning...

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Lecture Notes after Quiz #1. Date: 09/23/2019 I. Learning Modify or change our behavior or understanding of things, as a result of our experiences. It is a relatively permanent change. Make associations. Saying “Let's just be friends” to your ex, but you know you won't be. II. Classical condition (Scared of the boss) Reflective Response = Flinching. Uncondition stimulus (UCS) = Yelling. Uncondition Response (UCR) = Flinching. NO LEARNING INVOLVED ^ . Footstep (CS) + Yelling (UCS) = Flinching (UCR) Condition Stimulus (CS): A stimulus that starts off as neutral Footsteps (CS) → Flinch (CR) Condition response (CR): Learned response. Association between events. III. Operant Conditioning - How learning takes place through consequences. Basics. 1. Reinforcer ( Strengthens the response) Makes it more likely to happen again. Desired Organizational behaviors: Positive Reinforcer ( recognition, bonus) Negative Reinforcer ( Take something negative away) Ex. Pain, fear, boredom, stress, anxiety. Ex. In an exam, the more you study, the less stress you have. (NR). 2. ESCAPE LEARNING / CONDITIONING The worker learns to make a response in order to end exposure to a negative stimulus.
Ex. A dog is in a cage, half of the side has electricity. Therefore, the dog jumps on the other side to not suffer. 3. AVOIDANCE LEARNING / CONDITION A worker learns to make a response in order to avoid exposure to a negative stimulus. Ex. You are not around whatever you’re trying to avoid. Ex. Hiding from the lady at work that doesn’t stop talking as soon as you see her. A person that doesn't put themselves in a position face something negative. PUNISHMENT . (DON’T DO, takes something you like). What is the goal? Make them stop. 1. Take things someone likes away so they can’t stop doing certain things. (Does not compare to Negative Reinforce). LEARNING + REINFORCEMENT Complex Behaviors Learning to drive a Car is a complex task. Shaping - The Reinforcement of successive and closer approximations to a desired behavior. - Effective when employees need to learn complicated sequences of behavior. - When it is unlikely that employees will be able to perform the desired behaviors all at once, managers reinforce closer and closer approximations to the desired behavior to encourage employees to gradually acquire the skills and expertise needed to perform at an adequate level. 1. Behavior Shaping - Reinforcing Succeessive Approximations. The rat example, if he wants to eat, he needs to move next to the marbel each time. We were clapping for Maytte everytime she would do what she was supposed to. - We were reinforcing her with clapping. Extinction ( Behavior is dissapearing because there is no longer a consequence for the behavior).
Ex. Sam’s Manager realized that meetings will take longer than expected when Sam would make jokes. She realzied that if she stopped laughing at Sam’s jokes, that would eliminate Sam’s positive reinforcement. It eliminated Sam’s jokes in a painless way. PUNISHMENT ( Reduces the probability of an undersired behavior)

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