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Unformatted text preview: Joseph T. Catalano • • TodayJs ssues JTomorrowJs Trends 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page i N u r s i n g N o w ! 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page ii 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page iii N u r s i n g N o w ! Today’s Issues, Tomorrow’s Trends Seventh edition Joseph T. Catalano, PhD, RN Program Consultant, Author President, Oklahoma Nurses Association Ada, Oklahoma 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page iv F. A. Davis Company 1915 Arch Street Philadelphia, PA 19103 Copyright © 2015 by F. A. Davis Company Copyright © 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2009 by F. A. Davis Company. All rights reserved. This book is protected by copyright. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America Last digit indicates print number: 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Acquisitions Editor: Megan Keim Publisher: Joanne P. DaCunha, RN, MSN Director of Content Development: Darlene D. Pedersen, MSN, APRN, BC Content Project Manager: Christina L. Snyder Illustration and Design Manager: Carolyn O’Brien As new scientific information becomes available through basic and clinical research, recommended treatments and drug therapies undergo changes. The author(s) and publisher have done everything possible to make this book accurate, up to date, and in accord with accepted standards at the time of publication. The author(s), editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for consequences from application of the book, and make no warranty, expressed or implied, in regard to the contents of the book. Any practice described in this book should be applied by the reader in accordance with professional standards of care used in regard to the unique circumstances that may apply in each situation. The reader is advised always to check product information (package inserts) for changes and new information regarding dose and contraindications before administering any drug. Caution is especially urged when using new or infrequently ordered drugs. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Catalano, Joseph T., author. Nursing now! : today’s issues, tomorrow’s trends / Joseph T. Catalano. — Seventh edition. p. ; cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-0-8036-3972-0 I. Title. [DNLM: 1. Nursing—trends. 2. Nursing Care—trends. WY 16.1] RT82 610.7306’9—dc23 2014027951 Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use, or the internal or personal use of specific clients, is granted by F. A. Davis Company for users registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (CCC) Transactional Reporting Service, provided that the fee of $.25 per copy is paid directly to CCC, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923. For those organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged. The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036-2763-7/12 0 + $.25. 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page v D e d i c a t i o n To all the present and future leaders of the nursing profession who have and will dedicate their time, efforts, and talents to empower nurses across all specialties and practice settings to promote the profession of nursing and improve health care. 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page vi 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page vii P r e f a c e Major revisions was the name of the game for the seventh edition of Nursing Now: Today’s Issues, Tomorrow’s Trends, with tons of new information and topics! We believe you will be very pleased with how it turned out. It remains truly unique among issues and trends books. The seventh edition retains the eye-appealing and user-friendly format that made previous editions so popular. The changes keep coming in health care since the last publication of this text. Major demographic shifts are occurring as baby boomers reach retirement age and the population of new immigrants rapidly expands. As the health-care reform bill continues to be implemented, large groups of individuals now have health-care insurance who didn’t in the recent past. Nurses, as always, are at the forefront of these changes, providing care for the elderly and those who speak English as a second language. They have to implement reforms that look more to quality of care rather than the number of services provided. Thanks to our readers’ suggestions, we have added several new chapters. Chapter 13, “Understanding and Dealing Successfully With Difficult Behavior,” is an outgrowth of Chapter 12 on communication. It organizes difficult behavior around the five elements of the grieving process. It also provides examples of both what clients might say or do when being difficult and the appropriate responses by the nurse. Because of the emphasis placed on quality of care and outcomes of care in the healthcare reform bill, Chapter 15, “Ensuring Quality Care,” was added to clearly define what quality is and means and the efforts to achieve it. Chapter 19, “The Politically Active Nurse,” discusses the pros and cons of health-care reform in a balanced manner. It is very timely, as the health-care reform bill will be fully implemented over the next few years. Every nurse has noticed the increase of the elderly in the health-care system, so Chapter 23, “Impact of the Aging Population on Health-Care Delivery,” was added and discusses how the large influx of the elderly have added additional stress to an already stressed system of care. It is also impossible to deny that there has been an increase in natural and man-made disasters over the past few years. Disaster preparedness is something all nurses need to be familiar with, and new Chapter 26, “Preparing for Functioning Effectively in a Disaster,” discusses both the role of the public in preparing for disasters and the special preparation nurses need to have to function after a disaster in providing care for the victims. The chapter on the NCLEX exam was updated to reflect the recent changes by the National Council of State Boards of Nursing, including samples of the new alternative-format questions. All other chapters were revised with the addition of new content and resources. There is new material on bioethics and leadership and management; expanded discussion of SBAR, QSEN, and Six Sigma; discussion of the LACE model and future plans for advanced practice nurses; expanded information on writing and submitting online résumés; and many other new developments in health care. Graduates from today’s nursing programs have opportunities for professional practice and advancement that could only be dreamed of a few years ago. Yes, the demands are many, but the rewards are great. Today’s nursing students must learn more, do more, and be more. Students entering nursing schools today come from diverse cultural, personal, and educational backgrounds. They must master a tremendous amount of information and learn a wide variety of skills so that they can pass the licensure exam and become highly skilled registered nurses. The seventh edition of Nursing Now! Today’s Issues, Tomorrow’s Trends offers students a starting point to influence the future of health care in the vii 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page viii viii Preface United States. We are very excited about the revised text and believe its quality and content meet the high standards demanded by our readers. As in past editions, we have retained the interactive format of the text, in addition to the journal layout, current issues boxes, and integrated questions throughout. There are many new graphic illustrations and case studies. We also added a number of new illustrations to increase the visual appeal of the book. The available website with interactive learning activities for students has been updated and expanded. The book’s primary purpose remains the same as in past editions. It presents an overview and synthesis of the important issues and trends that are basic to the development of professional nursing and that affect nursing both today and into the future. Our readers tell us that the book can be used both at the beginning of the student’s educational process as an “Introduction to Nursing” course, and also toward the end of the process as an “Issues and Trends” course. Some instructors even use it throughout their programs, incorporating chapters as the content is reflected in their course presentations. Nursing students remain the primary intended audience for Nursing Now! However, practicing nurses have reported there is a sufficiently wide range of current issues and topics covered in enough depth to be useful for their practice. Another dichotomy that nurses face on a daily basis is the ability to hold on to key unchanging principles while working in a constantly changing environment. Simply stated, a nurse’s ability to adapt to changes in the health-care system while remaining focused on providing high-quality care is the basis for a successful professional practice. The only way that nurses will be able to effectively practice their profession in a demanding health-care system is to remain firmly rooted in those values and beliefs that have always served as their source of strength. Even more so than in the past, nurses need to look to each other for the inspiration and the strength that allow them to succeed. Professional organizations still serve as the single most powerful force for nurses, and membership in professional organizations is becoming increasingly important. It is our belief that this book will help future nurses become familiar with the important issues and trends that affect the profession and health care. The nursing profession needs highly skilled nurses who can be civil, teach, do research, solve complicated client problems, provide highly skilled care, obtain advanced degrees, and influence the political realm that so affects all aspects of health care. The leaders of the profession will come from those students who have a clear understanding of what it means to be a professional nurse and are willing to invest effort in attaining their goals. Joseph T. Catalano, PhD, RN 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page ix A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s I would like to express my sincere thanks to my students and colleagues who have given their time, knowledge, creativity, and understanding of what is required to promote the profession of nursing both in the present and for the future. I would also like to thank Pam, Sarah, Amanda, Dandy, and Pepper for their tolerance and encouragement as I ignore them while I’m on the computer. And a special thank you to Sharon Bator, whose tireless work and outstanding organizational skills contributed to the editing and revision of several chapters. ix 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page x 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page xi C o n t r i b u t o r s Mary Abadie, RN, MSN, CPNP Assistant Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Tonia Aiken, RN, BSN, JD President and CEO Aiken Development Group New Orleans, Louisiana Sharon M. Bator, RN, MSN, CPE Assistant Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Barbara Bellfield, MS, RNP-C, RN Family Nurse Practitioner Ventura County Public Health Loma Vista Road Ventura, California Cynthia Bienemy, RN, PhD Director, Louisiana Center for Nursing Louisiana State Board of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Doris Brown, Med, MS, RN, CNS Public Health Executive Director Robert Wood Johnson Nurse Fellow 2006–2009 Baton Rouge, Louisiana Sandra Brown, RN, DNS, APRN, FNP-BC Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Joseph T. Catalano, PhD, RN Program Consultant, Author Ada, Oklahoma Sarah T. Catalano Public Relations Coordinator Cothran Development Strategies Ada, Oklahoma Captain Dr. Leah S. Cullins, MSN, APRN, FNP-BC NIH-NINR SGI Fellow Louisiana Commission on HIV, AIDS, and Hepatitis C Assistant Professor Southern University School of Nursing Undergraduate & Graduate Programs Southern University and A&M College Baton Rouge, Louisiana Lydia DeSantis, RN, PhD, FAAN University of Miami School of Nursing Miami, Florida Joan Anny Ellis, RN, PhD Director, Educational Services Woman’s Hospital Baton Rouge, Louisiana Associate Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Mary Evans, JD, RN 316 N. Tejon Colorado Springs, Colorado xi 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page xii xii Contributors Betty L. Fomby-White, RN, PhD Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Associate Faculty University of Phoenix Online Donna Gentile O’Donnell, RN, MSN Deputy Health Commissioner (Retired) Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Anita H. Hansberry, RN, MS Assistant Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Nicole Harder, RN, BN, MPA Coordinator, Learning Laboratories Helen Glass Centre for Nursing Faculty of Nursing University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Jacqueline J. Hill, RN, PhD Associate Professor & Chair Undergraduate Nursing Program Southern University A&M College Baton Rouge, Louisiana Edna Hull, PhD, RN, CNE Associate Professor & Program Director Our Lady of the Lake College Metropolitan New Orleans Center New Orleans, Louisiana Sharon W. Hutchinson, PhD, MN, RN, CNE Associate Professor and Chair Graduate Nursing Programs Southern University School of Nursing Southern University and A&M College Baton Rouge, Louisiana Joyce Miller, BSN, CPE, CCM Clarity Hospice of Baton Rouge Baton Rouge, Louisiana Karen Mills, MSN, RN Nurse Family Partnership State Nurse Consultant Louisiana Office of Public Health Baton Rouge, Louisiana Roberta Mowdy, MS, RN Instructor Department of Nursing East Central University Ada, Oklahoma Joseph Mulinari, PhD, RN College of Mt. St. Vincent Department of Nursing Riverdale, New York Linda Newcomer, RN, MSN Instructor Department of Nursing East Central University Ada, Oklahoma Robert Newcomer, PhD Assistant Professor East Central University Ada, Oklahoma Anyadie Onu, RN, MS Assistant Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Janet S. Rami, RN, PhD Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Mary Ann Remshardt, EdD, RN Assistant Professor Department of Nursing East Central University Ada, Oklahoma 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page xiii Contributors xiii Viki Saidleman, MS, RN Instructor Department of Nursing East Central University Ada, Oklahoma Nancy C. Sharts-Hopko, RN, PhD, FAAN Professor Villanova University Villanova, Pennsylvania Enrica K. Singleton, RN, PhD Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Wanda Raby Spurlock, DNS, RN, BC, CNS, FNGNA Associate Professor Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Melissa Stewart DNS, RN, CPE Assistant Professor Our Lady of the Lake College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Cheryl Taylor, PhD, RN Associate Professor of Nursing Director Office of Nursing Research NLN Consultant to National Student Nurses Association Southern University and A&M College School of Nursing Baton Rouge, Louisiana Karen Tomajan, MS, RN, NEA-BC Clinical/Regulatory Consultant INTEGRIS Baptist Medical Center Oklahoma City, Oklahoma Esperanza Villanueva-Joyce, EdD, CNS, RN National Dean for Academics Education Affiliates Kathleen Mary Young, RN, C, MA Instructor Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page xiv 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page xv C o n t e n t s U n i t 1 The Growth of Nursing 1 1 2 3 4 5 The Development of a Profession 3 Historical Perspectives 20 Theories and Models of Nursing 38 The Process of Educating Nurses 72 The Evolution of Licensure, Certification, and Nursing Organizations 99 U n i t 2 Making the Transition to Professional 119 6 7 8 9 10 Ethics in Nursing 121 Bioethical Issues 145 Nursing Law and Liability 178 NCLEX: What You Need to Know 205 Reality Shock in the Workplace 226 U n i t 3 Leading and Managing 255 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Leadership, Followership and Management 257 Communication, Negotiation, and Conflict Resoloution 285 Understanding and Dealing Successfully With Difficult Behavior 310 Health-Care Delivery Systems 353 Ensuring Quality Care 376 Delegation in Nursing 396 Incivility: The Antithesis of Caring 411 Nursing Informatics 429 The Politically Active Nurse 452 U n i t 4 Issues in Delivering Care 483 20 21 22 23 The Healt-Care Debate: Best Allocation of Resources for the Best Outcomes 485 Spirituality and Health Care 519 Cultural Diversity 540 Impact of the Aging Population on Health-Care Delivery 565 xv 3972_FM_i-xvi 03/01/15 10:58 AM Page xvi xvi Contents 24 25 26 27 Nursing Research and Evidence-Based Practice 581 Integrative Health Practices 611 Preparing for Functioning Effectively in a Disaster 646 Developments in Current Nursing Practice 674 Glossary 688 Index 705 3972_Ch01_001-019 29/12/14 11:39 AM Page 1 1 The Growth of Nursing 1 3972_Ch01_001-019 29/12/14 11:39 AM Page 2 3972_Ch01_001-019 29/12/14 11:39 AM Page 3 The Development of a Profession Joseph T. Catalano Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, the reader will be able to: • Define the terms position, job, occupation, and profession • Compare the three approaches to defining a profession • Analyze those traits defining a profession that nursing has attained • Evaluate why nursing has failed to attain some of the traits that define a profession • Correlate the concept of power with its important characteristics 1 S WHAT IS A PROFESSION? ince the time of Florence Nightingale, each generation of nurses, in its own way, has fostered the movement to professionalize the image of nurses and nursing. The struggle to change the status of nurses—from that of female domestic servants to one of high-level health-care providers who base their protocols on scientific principles—has been a primary goal of nursing’s leaders for many years. Yet some people, both inside and outside the profession of nursing, question whether the search for and attainment of professional status is worth the effort and price that must ultimately be paid. At some levels in nursing, the question of professionalism takes on immense significance. However, to the busy staff nurse—who is trying to allocate client assignments for a shift, distribute the medications at 9 a.m. to 24 clients, and supervise two aides, a licensed practical nurse (LPN) or licensed vocational nurse (LVN) and a nursing student— the issue may not seem very significant at all. Indeed, when nurses were first developing their identity separately from that of physicians, there was no thought about their being part of a profession. Over the years, as the scope of practice and responsibilities have expanded, nurses have increasingly begun to consider what they do to be professional activities. This chapter presents some of the current thoughts concerning professions and where nursing stands in relation to these viewpoints. 3 3972_Ch01_001-019 29/12/14 11:39 AM Page 4 4 Unit 1 The Growth of Nursing APPROACHES TO DEFINING A PROFESSION In common use, terms such as position, job, occupation, profession, professional, and professionalism often are used interchangeably and incorrectly. The following definitions will clarify what is meant by these terms within this text: but where they are located along the continuum. Occupations such as medicine, law, and the ministry are widely accepted by the public as being closest to the professional end of the continuum.3 Other occupations may be less clearly defined. What Do You Think? ? Position: A group of tasks assigned to one individual Do you really care if nursing is a profession? How will it Job: A group...
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