CAREER MANAGEMENT NOTES 2-TRIM 3.pdf - KCA UNIVERSITY...

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Unformatted text preview: KCA UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF COMMERCE CMS 206 CAREER MANAGEMENT INSTRUCTOR: Fanice COURSE PURPOSE The course is to help the student appreciate issues underlying the relationships in work place, career management model, and theories of career choice. COURSE OBJECTIVE The learner will be able to; To explain concepts of career and career management models. Explain the theories of career choice. Take charge of personal career development. 1: WORK 1.1 Meaning of Work 1.2 Historical Context of Work 1.3 Variables that define Work 2: CAREER CONCEPTS 2.1 Career 2.2 Career Management 2.3 Career Planning 2.4 Career Development 2.5 Career Paths 2.6 Career Self- Management 3: CAREER MANAGEMENT MODELS 3.1 Traditional Plan-and-implement Career Model. 3.2 Modern Test-and-Learn Career Model. 3.3 Characteristics of Career Management Model. 4: LIFE AND CAREER STAGES 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Children 4.3 Adolescence 4.4 Early Life Career Stage 4.5 Middle Life Career Stage 4.6 Late Life Career Stage. Page 1 of 60 5. THEORIES OF CAREER CHOICE 5.1 Jung’s Theory 5.2 Bordin’s Theory 5.3 Ginsberg’s Theory 6 ORGANIZATIONAL CHOICE 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Theories of Organizational Choice 6.3 Theories of Position Selection in Organizations 6.4 Factors Influencing Organizational Choice 7. CAREER MANAGEMENT IN A CHANGING ENVIRONMENT 7.1 Career Patterns 7.2 Working Couples 7.3 Career Plateauing 7.4 Obsolescence 7.5 Job Loss 8. ORGANIZATIONAL SUPPORT AND CAREER ISSUES 8.1 Career Assistance 8.2 Managing Job/Career transition 8.3 Formal Developmental Relationships. EVALUATION 1. Class assignments 2. Continuous Assessment test 3. Final Examination TOTAL 10% 20% 70% 100% REFERENCES 1. Luthans, Fred; Organizational Behavior- 9th edition-Boston; McGraw Hill, 2001. 2. Statt, David A: Psychology and World of work-2nd.- London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. 3. Gibb, Stephen: Learning and Development: -London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003. Page 2 of 60 1. WORK 1.1 Meaning of Work The meaning of work embraces the significance that work or working has in people’s lives. Work sustains life in the sense of biological survival, and it can also sustain the quality of life. Different meanings can be derived from different concepts associated with work; i) As a means of making a living, ii) Being occupied, iii) Fulfilling a vocation, iv) Developing and utilizing skills, v) Fulfilling needs, vi) Contributing to an all-embracing lifestyle. vii) Fulfilling a life purpose. Individual meanings of work are derived directly or indirectly from socio-cultural influences in the context of; i) Family socialization. ii) School socialization. iii) Group affiliations and iv) Work experience. 1.2 Historical context of Work Socio-cultural changes have influenced the meanings of work over time as follows: 1.2.1. Pre- Industrial Times Three of the meanings that are associated with work in pre-industrial times are; • Work as drudgery, • Work as an instrument to spiritual or religious ends, and • Work as intrinsically meaningful for its own sake. i) Work as Drudgery The Greeks and Romans of antiquity viewed work as a burden that contaminates the mind. It was regarded as contrary to the ideal of exercising the mind to think about truth concerning matters of philosophy, politics, and art. Page 3 of 60 Manual labour was the domain of slaves while, as Cicero proclaimed, the only forms of work worthy of free men were big business and agriculture and living the life of a retired country gentleman. The Hebrews also saw work as drudgery, but additionally as providing expiation of sin and regaining of spiritual dignity. The early Christians shared these views but also incorporated the meaning of work as charity, in that one had to share the fortunes of one’s work with the needy. Catholic meanings include expiation, charity, and purification. But it was also acceptable that the individual enriches himself or herself through work, although not as an end in itself, because work was merely a means to maintain life and the ultimate life was the life hereafter. ii) Work as an instrument to spiritual or religious ends According to Protestant views, work was a duty. Luther maintained that man works to serve God and to serve God well was to work well, whatever the nature of one’s work. No activity was superior to another, since all work helped to build God’s kingdom on earth, success is achieved when one pleases God and that one should improve one’s station in life with regard to class or profession if it will be of benefit to society. iii) Work as intrinsically meaningful for its own sake. During the Renaissance in Europe, with its focus on the value of a person’s mental powers rather than on his/her physical powers; work acquired the meaning of being intrinsically meaningful in itself. Work was seen as a means of mastering nature, and of each person becoming his own right. After the Renaissance in Europe, views on work varied in terms of what constituted progress or decadence, success or failure. In the nineteenth century, a universal meaning emerged in which work became exalted to being the reason for all progress- spiritual, material, and intellectual. 1.2.2. The Industrial Times With industrialization, the meaning of work became a problem area, in that meaning was not self-evident. Industrialization involved, inter alia; • • • • Mass production of objects in factories, with accompanying structural changes in the work process. Division of labour became more extensive; work tasks became fragmented and reduced to mechanistic, repetitive functions that adversely affected workers’ commitment to their jobs. The high rates of production expected by industry and Long working hours led to a decline in the will to work and to a seeking of meaning outside work. Page 4 of 60 1.2.3. The Post Industrial Times In post-industrialism the focus is on i) Information rather than in industry. ii) Production is associated with producing ideas in offices in addition to manufacturing objects in factories. iii) The proliferation of new technologies, in, for example, computerization and communications, and iv) Interaction of different cultures, involves heterogeneity in beliefs and tasks in society. Consequently, the cultural climate of post-industrialization, which is referred to as postmodernism, is characterized by; • Recognition of differences, • Plurality, • Paradox, and • Eclecticism, which involves various possibilities and choices 1.2.4. The 21st Century The characteristic of the 21st century workplace is putting under focus the changing meaning of work. Shifts from national to global markets and from technological to information, service-based economies signal dramatic changes that are also reflected in the nature of work and how it is performed. Three types of organizational transitions have received increasing attention during the past few years: i) Mergers and acquisitions, ii) Restructuring and downsizings, and iii) Privatizations. Some of the dramatic changes resulting from these transitions and that are affecting work and organizations include: • Increased global competition, • The impact of information technology, • The re-engineering of business processes, • Smaller companies that employ fewer people and • Shift from making a product to providing a service, and • The increasing disappearance of the meaning of ‘job’ as a fixed collection of tasks. These changes are having a negative effect on employee loyalty, morale, motivation and job security as many more people are increasingly being affected by job losses Individuals are increasingly being forced to adopt the protean career ( a career shaped by the individual) in response to the widespread redefinition and restructuring of the psychological contract. Page 5 of 60 This trend has led to an increased pursuit of self-employment, small business proprietorships, and entrepreneurship as alternative and even composite career paths. As individuals learn how to shape and manage their careers more autonomously, moving between jobs and organizations to increase their employment values, they are also adopting new and different attitudes, values and perceptions about the meaning of work in their lives. In the contemporary workplace, work is still viewed as being central in individuals’ lives. However, the choice of work now forms part of one’s spiritual journey as a major mode of self-expression and discovering one’s life purpose through exploring one’s possible selves in the various significant learning and experiences that identify one’s professional working life in a boundary less world. The meaning of work is influenced by the multiple worldviews of a multicultural world. Consequently, the meaning of work constitutes a multi-dimensional phenomenon that can Include various variables and which varies from individual to individual. Page 6 of 60 Table Showing Variables that define the meanings associated with work Pre-industrial era Work as drudgery Work as instrumental to spiritual or religious ends Work as intrinsically meaningful for its own sake. Industrial era Mechanistic, mass production lead to decline in the will to work. Meaning sought outside sphere of work. Post-industrial era Information technology and globalization lead to multiple viewpoints about the meaning of work. 21st century Boundary less, service-driven, technology-intensive work environments, heightened change and uncertain markets lead to a search for meaning, higher purpose and spiritual sense making through one’s work activities and life roles. The feeling of being useful in society through one’s work by supplying ideas, services or products that are useful to society. A sense of belonging in the society values Power structures status Central life interest leisure The norms, beliefs, principles, preferences, needs, interests, codes, criteria, world-view or ideology pf individuals and societies which determine modes of work behaviour and work norms. Dominant groups in society and organizations that transmit values and goals to the workplace by virtue of their positions of power and control over economic activity Social and material achievement that determine an individual’s place in the status hierarchy of the community Work is viewed as of central importance in an individual’s life. Activities that fall outside the context of work and that are not necessarily instrumental in sustaining income. Self-actualization An inner directedness through which individuals give expression to their intrinsic nature by self-enrichment, psychological growth, and seeing meaning of being. competency Individual’s skills, knowledge and attitudinal values which enhance their employability and ability to adapt to change and which contribute to satisfying job and organizational requirements. Spirituality at work The search for spiritual wholeness within the context of the workplace, involving the search to discover one’s true self, Page 7 of 60 higher life purpose and meaning through one’s work activities and life roles-implying the creation of a work environment of trust, respect, and ethics where diverse groups of individuals can do their best work. 1.3 Variables that define the meanings associated with work 1.3.1 A sense of belonging in society: • Despite the alienating negative effects of industrial development, work can provide a basis for integrating people into society by providing connections between people. • Sigmund Freud maintained that two important life functions are to work well and to love well. He regarded work as an essential aspect of life because it ties the individual to reality. • Work involves membership of social groups, which is a means of satisfying the needs for affiliation and interpersonal contact, and of providing social identity. • Allied to belonging in society is the feeling of being useful in society. Workers may feel useful in terms of the content of their work- that is, the physical, mental, or social tasks that they perform or in terms of the context of their work- that is, supplying ideas, services or products that are useful to society. • Workers on any level can feel useful in society, if the activity that they perform is accompanied by a sense of involvement in society. 1.3.2 Values • The term ‘values’ is used interchangeably to denote norms, beliefs, principles, preferences, needs, interests, intentions, codes, criteria, world-view or ideology. • Such terms suggest that values can be seen as orientations or dispositions that selectively determine modes of behaviour and life forms, including work behaviour and work forms. • Values develop as a result of external socio-cultural forces and internal psychological factors that influence the individual. • Socio-cultural norms become personal objectives of the individual that are transformed to values or orientations that are socially sanctioned. • The work ethic postulated that work has moral value, that each person has a calling to work, that people should develop their talents, and that all, including the rich, must work. • Idleness is a taboo and personal salvation is achieved through industriousness and thrift. Page 8 of 60 • Material welfare is a sign of God’s grace and it is a vice to waste it on selfgratification. • The work ethic is associated with the development of capitalism. • Max Weber maintains that it encouraged capitalistic activities such as pursuit of profit and renewal of profit by commercial enterprise and national organization of labour. • The relation between values and the meaning of work can be direct or indirect and imperceptible, and it can be complicated by the fact that the meaning of work associated with values does not necessarily constitute the goals of work. 1.3.3 Power structures • Dominant groups in society and organizations transmit values and goals to the workplace by virtue of their positions of power and control over economic activity. • As power groups subscribe to different values, different meanings of work come into practice. In democratic power structures, for example, the meaning of work revolves around human dignity, liberty, equality, and solidarity, which are values that have little meaning in autocratic power structures. • Power groups also determine the ways in which decision are made in organizations, for example, whether decisions with regard to change are made unilaterally by management or by participation of workers. • Jobs should be designed to give workers empowerment. • Empowerment should be seen as an organizational strategy that gives workers more responsibility for decision-making and more involvement in controlling work processes. • Empowerment makes workers feel that they can be competent and helps them to internalize their learning and competence. Feelings of competence and mastery can also make workers more resistant to negative aspects of work, in that they learn how to handle and avert stress. • • Furthermore, empowerment can have a democratizing function in equalizing status differences between workers and management. • A particular organization is no longer host to individuals’ careers because it provides a structure upon which individuals can build their careers. Page 9 of 60 • Individuals now have self-ownership of their careers, which can be defined in terms of individual actions that structure their careers. • This brings about the concept of the boundary less career, which refers to a sequence of job enactments which goes beyond the single employment scenario. • In the context of a career that has no organizational boundaries, the individual can become self-empowered by means of continuous learning. • Continuous learning is a strong and ongoing awareness of the need for and value of learning. • 1.3.4 Status Status arises largely from the tendency to categorize people according to work related factors. • Work therefore determines the individual’s place in the status hierarchy of the community. • • Status is ascribed to individuals by society, family, friends, and co-workers. Generally it is ascribed to individuals according to material achievement (that is the financial income which work generates), and to social achievement (that is, prestige associated with a type of job). • Beside the job, social achievement can include non-work activities and social roles, for example membership of exclusive clubs, societies, or other social groups. Such groups can have social norms that influence and reinforce the individual to comply with ‘correct’ behaviors and in this way social norms associated with status can become personal meanings. • Status aspirations can differ in different societal or occupational groups. Some regard the social status or class structure as a hierarchy, which anyone can enter provided that they have the necessary abilities and ambitions, while others regard it as fixed aspect of life. Occupational or societal groups are primarily distinguished In terms of social class, for example the aristocracy versus the proletariat, or the capitalistic class versus the working class, which are respectively associated with higher and lower status. 1.3.5 Central life interest • A fundamental factor in the meaning of work is the centrality of work, which is the degree of importance that working has in the life of an individual at any given point in time. Page 10 of 60 • The idea of work as central life interest is stimulated by the fact that for most adults working occupies a large part of their lives. • Research shows that, for the majority of people, work is not a central life interest, although it has a different centrality for different occupational groups. • It has been suggests that work has more centrality for professional people. Because professional practice is creative, it involves personal responsibility for the outcomes of one’s work performance, and it involves a degree of risk and uncertainty, which requires personal accountability. • Work as central life interest does not refer to the content of work, but to the value outcomes- that is, rewards of working- relative to the outcomes of other life roles. Therefore individuals who have high work centrality will probably see job performance as instrumental in obtaining many rewards, such as self-worth, growth, and personal satisfaction while Individuals with low centrality, on the other hand, may perceive performance as related only to pay. 1.3.6 Leisure • Leisure involves activities that fall outside the context of work, and which are not necessarily instrumental in sustaining income, but can constitute ways in which work is connected to non-work. • The relation between work and leisure is not clear cut. • Work may have a spill over effect on leisure as, if work has positive meaning for individuals, they will possibly have positive attitudes to leisure activities, whereas if work is not meaningful to individuals they will probably engage in non-working that are likewise meaningless. • The reverse can also occur because satisfaction or dissatisfaction with leisure can have spill over effect on work. • Leisure can also compensate for lack of meaning in work activities. Various leisure roles can contribute to self enrichment and to expressing parts of personality that cannot find expression in work. • The pursuit of leisure can create values distinct from work values. • Consumerising, for example, which involves acquiring things, services and luxuries and using them up, can become a way of life in which consumption is a value in itself. Although consumption is necessary to sustain life, it can be devoid of meaning if it is merely a substitute for dissatisfaction of work. Page 11 of 60 • Ways of organizing work influence work/leisure relationship. Flexible working hours, a shorter working week or working year, more holidays and early retirements foster changing concepts of time. • Time becomes meaningfully allocated to activities such as sports, hobbies, crafts, amusements, tourism, and social relations. • More leisure t...
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