psychology notes 2 (ch 5) - Chapter 5 Shaping and Chaining...

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Chapter 5 Shaping and Chaining You cant use reinforcement if the behavior never occurs. You can try prompting, like we learned in chapter 4, but sometimes prompts are not enough. The behavior still doesn’t occur. The behavior is NOT in their behavioral repertoire. When this is the problem, we use SHAPING. Shaping- the differential reinforcement of successive approximation of a target behavior. This means that some behaviors get reinforced, some don’t. as the behavior gets closer and closer to the target behavior, then the criteria for reinforcement changes. You reinforce behaviors that take the person in the direction of the behavior you want. You start with what they give and you build on that towards your target behavior. What do we mean by differential reinforcements? What are successive approximations? Example: students at Auburn were required to shape a rat in an operant chamber to press the lever. Shaping is reinforcing a series of sequential steps toward the target behavior.
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