Lect+6+08 - Kinetic Theory of gases for calculating...

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Kinetic Theory of gases for calculating diffusion and effusion through a hole. Real Gases (Non-ideal gases) Van der Waals Models for Non-Ideal Gases A molecular view of Gases, Liquids and Solids Phase transitions between Gases, Liquids and Solids A plain Language understanding of the types and relative strengths intermolecular forces Ion-Ion Ion-Dipole Dipole-Dipole Dipole-Induced Dipole Induced Dipole-Induced Dipole
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D = (3 π /16) λ u av r 2 = 6 D t Gaseous Diffusion: How does r depend on Temperature?
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Real Gases: van der Waals equation of state 2 2
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Potential(V) for intermolecular interactions - He and Ar Long range attractive interaction gives rise to “a” term (van der Waals attraction in this case) Steep repulsive wall gives rise to “b” term
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Compressibility Factor: Behavior for Different Gases PV = nRT nRT z = z = 1 for an ideal gas, but not for real gases. PV
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Compressibility Factor: Dependence on of Z on Temperature for N 2
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Which molecule is largest? Why if HCl bigger than Ar? Which molecule has the strongest attractive interactions? Which molecule has the weakest attractive interactions?
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Comparison of Phases Gas - freely moving independent particles (molecules) little or no interaction between particles Liquid - attractive interactions dominate between particles (molecules). Particles generally touching to minimize energy but free to move. Solid - attractive interactions dominate between particles (molecules). Particles touching and locked in place to minimize energy
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Representation of the States of Matter
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Phase transitions
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Sublimation of I 2 crystals Solid I 2 sublimes.
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