Chapter 3 - Human evolution.pptx - Chapter 3 Human Evolution Human Divergence • < 10 MYA for lineage separating hominids and other great apes • ~ 7

Chapter 3 - Human evolution.pptx - Chapter 3 Human...

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Chapter 3 Human Evolution
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Human Divergence: < 10 MYA for lineage separating hominids and other great apes. ~ 7 MYA for last common ancestor with chimps. 35 million SNPs between humans and chimps; 10x higher than within any 1 haploid genome. < 0.5 MYA for modern lineage; great migrations only 50,000 YA.
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80 genes from common ancestor lost in humans. Hair keratin, muscle myosin, several for olfaction. Small changes (2 amino acids) in FOXP2 gene may allow complex vocalization. H. sapiens is divergent from, but interbred with H. neanderthalensis and H. denisova . Other members of Homo genus went extinct ~33,000 YA.
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Mitochondrial “Eve” : all extant humans share mtDNA from single woman who lived 120,000 YA. H. sapiens only 10,000 generations old! High diversity in sub-Saharan Africa; source populations for rest of world. Khoi-San bushmen – adjacent villages as divergent from each other as comparisons of any non-Africans. Migrations are series of genetic bottlenecks ; reduce diversity relative to source.
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Human Population Structure: Population subdivision : differences among groups based on the identity and frequency of alleles.
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