VAN-HU1421-#6.docx - VAN –CRITICAL QUESTIONS#3– ASSIGNMENT#6 HU1421 Introduction to Humanities II Assignment#6 Yen Phuong Van California Southern

VAN-HU1421-#6.docx - VAN –CRITICAL QUESTIONS#3–...

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VAN –CRITICAL QUESTIONS #3– ASSIGNMENT #6 1 HU1421: Introduction to Humanities II Assignment #6 Yen Phuong Van California Southern University Mentor: Lisa Thompson
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VAN –CRITICAL QUESTIONS #3– ASSIGNMENT #6 2 1. What were the leading goals, ideals, figures, and contributions of the Enlightenment to the Western tradition? The Enlightenment, sometimes called the 'Age of Enlightenment', was a late 17th- and 18th-century intellectual movement emphasizing reason, individualism, and skepticism. The Enlightenment presented a challenge to traditional religious views. It included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy, and came to advance ideals, such as liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, and separation of church and state. The Enlightenment has also been hailed as the foundation of modern western political and intellectual culture. It brought political modernization to the west by introducing democratic values and institutions and the creation of modern, liberal democracies[ CITATION Mat14 \l 1033 ]. 2. What was enlightened despotism? Where and why did it develop in the eighteenth century? Discuss the successes and failures of this political system, focusing on one of the enlightened despots discussed in the textbook. Pg444 Enlightened despotism, also called enlightened absolutism, was among the first ideas resulting from the political ideals of the Enlightenment. Enlightened despots held that royal power came not from divine right but from a social contract whereby a despot was given the power to govern in lieu of any other governments. In effect, the monarchs of enlightened absolutism strengthened their authority by improving the lives of their subjects[ CITATION Lum19 \l 1033 ]. Enlightened despotism was defended in an essay by Frederick the Great, who ruled Prussia from 1740 to 1786. By 1740, Prussia had a solid economic base, a hardworking bureaucracy, and an efficient army. Capitalizing on these advantages, Frederick the Great turned Prussia into a leading European power.
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VAN –CRITICAL QUESTIONS #3– ASSIGNMENT #6 3 Frederick was an enlightened despot of the type beloved by the philosophers. He even attempted (though failed) to reform his state's agrarian economy and social system in accordance with the rational principle that all individuals have the natural right to choose for themselves the best way to live[ CITATION Mat14 \l 1033 ]. 3. What influences helped to bring about the neoclassical style? What were its characteristics? Neoclassicism refers to the movements in the arts that draw inspiration from the “classical” art and culture of ancient Greece and Rome. The rise of Neoclassicism occurred within the 18 th century during the Enlightenment era and continued into the early 19 th century. The dominant styles during the 18th century were Baroque and Rococo. Rococo style emphasized on asymmetry, bright colors, and ornamentation, this is the direct opposite of Neoclassical style. The Neoclassical style emphasizes on order, symmetry, and simplicity. Neoclassicism grew to encompass all of the arts, including
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  • Fall '19
  • Lisa Thompson

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