FRESHWATER-ECOSYSTEM-FINAL-OUTLINE.docx - FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM Group 1 Reporters Ababol Kessia R Francisco Ephesiany G Maasin Ivy Antipolo Jia D Members

FRESHWATER-ECOSYSTEM-FINAL-OUTLINE.docx - FRESHWATER...

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FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEM Group 1 Reporters: Francisco, Ephesiany G. Antipolo, Jia D. Jamandra, Jaely Morales. Chlaire Rosalina, Cherepril Cobrilla, Edcel Grace C. Basibas,Crischi Ababol, Kessia R. Maasin, Ivy Members: Somondong, Eloisa Gale A. Bontilao, Princess Sarah Lasaca, Theresa Tagudin, Ruzelle C. Coronel, Lyka Objectives 1. To understand the hydrological cycle and freshwater availability 2. To examine the different types of freshwater ecosystems 3. To explore the different biodiversity found in different freshwater ecosystems 4. To be aware on the current threats to freshwater ecosystems The Hydrological Cycle and Freshwater Availability - All freshwater ecosystems are regulated by the hydrological cycle. Hydrological cycle - continuous process of water movement between states that is ultimately driven by solar energy. 1. Evaporation - move liquid water to atmospheric gas Evapotranspiration - water produced from vegetative respiration 2. Condensation - process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. 3. Precipitation - moves atmospheric water into liquid form and into streams, rivers, and lakes. Downstream flows then moves the liquid water into storage areas including groundwater, lakes or ocean.
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Retention time - the length of time water remains in a particular place varies based on several factors ( size & shape of lakes, connectivity to the groundwater, configuration of streams and rivers) Groundwater - underground areas that are fully water-saturated
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Ecosystem Drivers of Freshwater diversity 1. Physical Habitat - small streams or spring ecosystems, the percent of water in contact with the substrate is much higher than in large rivers or lakes. In lakes, the most important physical habitats are likely to be in the shallow and near-shore environments (Wetzel 2001). 2. Energy Sources - refers to primary production or the basal level in the food web. Sunlight is the main factor regulating photosynthesis by green algae and some species of bacteria. 3. Water Quality - refers primarily to the chemical attributes of water. Dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, dissolved nutrients, dissolved metals, and suspended solids are some of the major components of water quality. 4. Biotic Interactions - Predation, competition, and hybridization are the major forms of biotic interactions. Predation rates can affect organismal behavior (i.e., predator avoidance) as well as population growth rates. Competition may affect population growth rates through density-dependent processes. Hybridization - is a population-level phenomenon, resulting from breeding of individuals among gene pools. Hybridization may result in increased fitness (defined in terms of survival and reproduction), and this process is referred to as heterosis.
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5. Hydrology - Stream flow is thought to have five major defining features: magnitude, frequency, duration, predictability, and rate of change. These features have critical implications for freshwater ecosystems.
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