Chapter Notes 23 Respiratory System(1).docx - Chapter 24...

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Chapter 24 Respiratory System RESPIRATORY SYSTEM OVERVIEW There are 5 processes associated with the respiratory system: 1) Ventilation: Movement of air into and out of lungs 2) External respiration: Gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the pulmonary circulation 3) Transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide across the circulatory system 4) Internal respiration: Gas exchange between systemic circulation and the systemic tissues 5) Cellular respiration within all cells of body: O 2 + Glucose → CO 2 + ATP + Heat Functions of the Respiratory system: 1) Regulation of blood pH: Through carbon dioxide levels (Learn more about in unit 5) 2. Production of chemical mediators: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) which is important for blood pressure regulation. 3) Voice production: Air moving past vocal cords makes sound and speech possible 4) Olfaction: Sensation of smell 5) Protection: Protection against microorganisms. The respiratory system prevents microorganisms from entering the body and removes microorganisms from respiratory surfaces. ZONES OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM 1) Conducting zone : Part of the respiratory tract that do not engage in gas exchange (Nasal cavity through terminal bronchi). The conducting zone is also known as the anatomical dead zone. Conducting zone/Anatomical dead zone: Nasal cavity → Nasopharynx → Oropharynx → Hypopharynx → Larynx → Trachea → Primary bronchi → Secondary bronchi → Tertiary bronchi → Terminal bronchioles 2) Respiratory zone : Where actual gas exchange that takes place (Respiratory bronchi and alveoli) Respiratory bronchioles → Alveolar ducts → Alveolar sacs STUCTURE OF THE CONDUCTING ZONE Lumen: Air passage Mucosa: Epithelium Submucosa: Loose CTP containing mucous glands
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Cartilaginous layer: Contains cartilage and/or smooth muscle. Together maintains size and shape of respiratory tract. Adventitia: Dense CTP that anchors respiratory tract to rest of the body ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NASAL CAVITY Inhaled air begins its journey in the nasal cavity . The nasal cavity is a part of the conducting zone of the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity stretches from the nostrils to the opening of the pharynx. Overlaying the nasal cavity is the nasal bones. The nasal septum is a partition separating nasal cavity into right and left parts. The septum is composed of hyaline cartilage, the vomer bone, and the ethmoid bone Histology of the nasal cavity: 1) Vestibule: Stratified squamous epithelium. Contains large nose hairs to prevent entry of foreign molecules 2) Respiratory region : Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with goblet cells. Mucus released from goblet cells traps foreign molecules while cilia moves foreign molecules to digestive tract. Mucus also humidifies and warms incoming air, which reduces friction and inflammation.
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