AnaPhy - Blood.docx - BLOOD COMPONENTS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 1 Pump(Heart 2 Conducting System(Blood Vessels 3 Fluid Medium(Blood FUNCTIONS OF THE

AnaPhy - Blood.docx - BLOOD COMPONENTS OF THE...

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BLOOD COMPONENTS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 1. Pump (Heart) 2. Conducting System (Blood Vessels) 3. Fluid Medium (Blood) FUNCTIONS OF THE CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM 1. To transport materials to and from the cells: O 2 and CO 2 Nutrients Hormones Immune System Components Waste Products Blood - specialized fluid of connective tissue - contains cells suspended in a fluid matrix FUNCTIONS OF THE BLOOD 1. Transport dissolved substances 2. Regulation of pH and ions 3. Restriction of fluid losses at injury sites 4. Defense against toxins and pathogens 5. Stabilization of body temperature COMPONENTS OF THE BLOOD 1. Plasma - fluid - similar to and exchanges fluid with interstitial fluid - matrix of formed elements - resembles interstitial fluid - unique mixture of proteins not found in other extracellular fluids 2. Formed Elements - all cells and solids COMPONENTS OF PLASMA 1. Water 2. Dissolved Plasma Proteins 3. Other Solutes TYPES OF FORMED ELEMENTS 1. Red Blood Cells (RBCs)/Erythrocytes - transport O 2 - 99.9% of formed elements - small and highly specialized disc - thin in middle and thicker at edge - lack nuclei, mitochondria and ribosomes - live about 120 days or 4 months before being recycled - several million are produced each second - outnumber WBCs 1 000:1 2. White Blood Cells (WBCs)/Leukocytes - part of the immune system - do not have hemoglobin - have nuclei and other organelles - mostly found in connective tissue proper and lymphatic system organs - 6 000-9 000 per µl are found in blood - migrate out of bloodstream - have ameboid movement - attracted to chemical stimuli which causes a positive chemotaxis - some are phagocytic: Neutrophils Eosinophils Monocyte - defend against infection, foreign cells or toxins - clean up and repair damaged tissues - develop in the bone marrow except for monocytes 3. Platelets - cell fragments involved in clotting - live about 9-12 days - removed by the spleen - involved in hemostasis - activated by abnormal changes in the local environment, release clotting factors and other chemicals 2/3 - number of platelets removed for emergencies - 150 000-500 000 per µl Hemopoeisis - process of producing formed elements by myeloid and lymphoid stem cells Fractionation - process of separating whole blood for clinical analysis into plasma and formed elements GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BLOOD 1. 38°C (100.4°F) - normal temperature 2. High viscosity 3. pH 7.35 – 7.45 - slightly alkaline 7% - amount of blood volume from total body weight 5-6 L - total amount of blood for average adult males 4-5 L - total amount of blood for average adult females Plasma - 50-60% of blood volume - more than 90% is water - transports organic and inorganic molecules, formed elements and heat COMPOSITION OF PLASMA 1. Plasma Proteins (7%) - 90% made in the liver 2. Other Solutes (1%) 3. Water (92%) Extracellular Fluids - consists of interstitial fluid (IF) and plasma - where plasma and IF exchange occur across capillary walls - allows the exchange of water, ions and small solutes DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLASMA AND IF 1. Levels of O 2 and CO 2 2. Dissolved proteins -
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  • Fall '16
  • lm alfonso

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