AAH Study Notes.docx - African American History u2013...

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African American History – MIDTERM STUDY Sub-Saharan AfricaPortion of the African continent lying south of the Sahara.indigenousany person, plant, or animal native to a certain areaBantu MigrationThe movement of the Bantu peoples southward throughout Africa, spreading their language and culture, from around 500 b.c. to around A.D 1000. The Bantu Migration spread knowledge of Farming, Iron working skills, and cultureGriotsProfessional oral historians from West Africa who served as keepers of traditions and advisers to kings.fictive kinshipCommon form of tribal bonding in nomadic societies in which allies are designated and treated as blood relatives. Fictive Kin relationships were also created by enslaved Africans intended to help provide mutual support.AnimismThe belief that bodies of water, animals, trees, and other natural objects have spiritsSudanFrom the Arabic term for "land of black people," a large region of West Africa that became part of a major exchange circuit.BerbersA member of a North African, primarily Muslim people living in settled or nomadic tribes from Morocco to Egypt. Berbers were vital to trade routes across the Saharan desert including the Muslim slave trade.West African Kingdoms3 kingdoms around Niger River,Ghana (900s), Mali (1300s),Songhai (14-1500s)1.GhanaProspers due to conquered peoples paying tribute to the Ghana (king)Land of Gold- access to gold mines in the South Must pay a tax to tradeUpper class converts to Islam Commoners continue traditional lifestylesGhana declines changing trade routes and attacks by others (ex Berbers)2.MaliSundiata Keita establishes kingdom Mali takes control of the trade (salt and gold)Golden Age and Mansa MusaMuslim leader, but tolerant of local traditions, Hajj puts Mali on the Map (1200 slaves and300 lbs gold)Timbuktu becomes center for learning Mali declines bc of weak leaders, rebellions of conquered people, Berbers take over3.Songhai One of conquered peoples of Mali
Sunni Ali makes Songhai empire Golden Age under Askia Muhammad Kingdom divided into provinces with local rulersIslam official religionDeclines in 16th due to Morocco conquering (trade to coastal areas)GhanaFirst known kingdom in sub-Saharan West Africa between the sixth and thirteenth centuries C.E. Also the modern West African country once known as the Gold Coast. gold and salt trade.Gold-Salt TradeGold and salt made up trade and wealth in the West African kingdoms because the Europeans wanted gold, and the Africans needed saltMali EmpireFormed in 1240 when Sundiata took control of Ghana Empire. It controlled trade across Sahara, the South and the Niger River.Songhai KingdomLargest African trading kingdom during its time; It was a cultural centerfor learning, trade, and religion. Helped rebel against Mali; only lasted for about 100 years;Mansa MusaRuler of Mali (r.1312-1337 CE) who made a hajj to Mecca; on the way there, he spread enormous amounts of gold showing the wealth of Mali; on the way back,he brought back education and Islamic culture.

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