1_31_19.docx - Study Guide \u25cf Tuesday Week 5 \u25cf 3\u201dx5\u201d index card \u25cf Exam Thursday Week 6 Indigenous Foodways and the Columbian Exchange \u25cf

1_31_19.docx - Study Guide u25cf Tuesday Week 5 u25cf...

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Study Guide Tuesday, Week 5 3”x5” index card Exam Thursday Week 6 Indigenous Foodways and the Columbian Exchange Native North America: 100s of tribal nations, result of thousands of years of change and interactions among tribes Complex social, political, and economic systems between tribes Native North American Foodways Paleo Indian hunter/gatherer societies Technology and transmission Clovis points - particular shaped spears Emerged around 10,000 BCE Discovered from Guatemala to Canada Large mammals: mammoth, bison, caribou 9000 BCE extinction of several large species Shift to bison hunting led to extensive hunting territories and cooperation with other tribes Texas, Bonfire Shelter - site where several communities would come together to herd large quantities of bison off cliffs in order to provide meat for each individual community Usually killed too many to be carried back, so it was very wasteful Olsen-Chubbock Colorado Farmers in the SW Desert Change in tech reveals more opportunity for relationship between others (reciprocity) Women Gatherers to Agricultural Societies Women’s roles more critical as climate changed Women’s role to be farmers while men hunted, producers of crops, more revered role Calories accounted for more of the nutrition of the tribe through farming rather than hunting Maize 1500 BCE acquired seeds from communities to the south (Bat Cave, NM) Ground and roasted, not planted

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