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Unformatted text preview: Sustainability: A Comprehensive Foundation Collection Editor: Tom Theis and Jonathan Tomkin, Editors Sustainability: A Comprehensive Foundation Collection Editor: Tom Theis and Jonathan Tomkin, Editors Authors: Said Al-Hallaj Steve Altaner Amy Ando Jeffrey Brawn Julie Cidell George Crabtree John Cuttica Serap Erdal Eugene Goldfarb David Grimley U of I Open Source Textbook Initiative Martin Jaffe Rob Kanter Angela Kent Amid Khodadoust Riza Kizilel Cindy Klein-Banai Andrew Leakey Sohail Murad Krishna Reddy John Regalbuto Dennis Ruez Eric Snodgrass Tom Theis Jonathan Tomkin Michael Ward Gillen Wood Online: < > This selection and arrangement of content as a collection is copyrighted by U of I Open Source Textbook Initiative. It is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 ( ). Collection structure revised: December 26, 2018 PDF generated: December 26, 2018 For copyright and attribution information for the modules contained in this collection, see p. 626. Table of Contents Foreword Preface .......................................................................... ................... 1 ............................................................................ ................... 3 1 Introduction to Sustainability: Humanity and the Environment 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 An Introduction to Sustainability: Humanity and the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 What is Sustainability? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 The IPAT Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Human Consumption Patterns and the Rebound Eect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Challenges for Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Chapter Review Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 The Evolution of Environmental Policy in the United States 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 The Evolution of Environmental Policy in the United States  Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 The American Conservation Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Environmental Risk Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Sustainability and Public Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Public Health and Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3 Climate and Global Change 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 Climate and Global Change  Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Climate Processes; External and Internal Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Milankovitch Cycles and the Climate of the Quaternary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Modern Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Climate Projections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 4 Biosphere 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Biosphere  Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Biogeochemical Cycles and the Flow of Energy in the Earth System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Biodiversity, Species Loss, and Ecosystem Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Soil and Sustainability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 135 5 Physical Resources: Water, Pollution, and Minerals 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 Physical Resources: Water, Pollution, and Minerals - Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Water Cycle and Fresh Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Case Study: The Aral Sea - Going, Going, Gone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Water Pollution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Case Study: The Love Canal Disaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Mineral Resources: Formation, Mining, Environmental Impact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Case Study: Gold: Worth its Weight? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 6 Environmental and Resource Economics 6.1 Environmental and Resource Economics - Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 233 6.2 Tragedy of the Commons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 6.3 Case Study: Marine Fisheries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 243 6.4 Environmental Valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 6.5 Evaluating Projects and Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 6.6 Solutions: Property Rights, Regulations, and Incentive Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 7 Modern Environmental Management 7.1 7.2 Modern Environmental Management  Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 267 Systems of Waste Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 iv 7.3 7.4 7.5 Case Study: Electronic Waste and Extended Producer Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Government and Laws on the Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Risk Assessment Methodology for Conventional and Alternative Sustainability Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 290 8 Sustainable Energy Systems 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Sustainable Energy Systems - Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Environmental Challenges in Energy, Carbon Dioxide, Air, Water and Land Use . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Case Study: Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Energy Sources and Carriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Energy Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 385 Applications of Phase Change Materials for Sustainable Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 397 9 Problem-Solving, Metrics, and Tools for Sustainability 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Problem-Solving, Metrics, and Tools for Sustainability - Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 Life Cycle Assessment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410 Derivative Life Cycle Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 Sustainability and Business . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470 10 Sustainability: Ethics, Culture, and History The Human Dimensions of Sustainability: History, Culture, Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 It's Not Easy Being Green: Anti-Environmental Discourse, Behavior, and Ideology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 10.3 The Industrialization of Nature: A Modern History (1500 to the present) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 483 10.4 Sustainability Studies: A Systems Literacy Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 490 10.5 The Vulnerability of Industrialized Resource Systems: Two Case Studies . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 494 10.6 Case Study: Agriculture and the Global Bee Colony Collapse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 498 10.7 Case Study: Energy and the BP Oil Disaster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 501 10.8 Sustainability Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 503 10.1 10.2 11 Sustainable Infrastructure 11.1 Sustainable Infrastructure - Chapter Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 511 11.2 The Sustainable City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 512 11.3 Sustainability and Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 535 11.4 Sustainable Energy Practices: Climate Action Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 551 11.5 Sustainable Transportation: Accessibility, Mobility, and Derived Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 11.6 Sustainable Stormwater Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 576 11.7 Case Study: A Net-Zero Energy Home in Urbana, Illinois . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 591 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619 Attributions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .626 Available for free at Connexions < ; 1 Foreword Sustainability is derived from two Latin words: sus which means up and tenere which means to hold. In its modern form it is a concept born out of the desire of humanity to continue to exist on planet Earth for a very long time, perhaps the indenite future. Sustainability is, hence, essentially and almost literally about holding up human existence. Possibly, the most succinct articulation of the issue can be found in the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development. The report entitled Our Common 2 Future  primarily addressed the closely related issue of Sustainable Development. The report, commonly know as the Brundtland Report after the Commission Chair Gro Harlem Brundtland, stated that Humanity has the ability to make development sustainable to ensure that it meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Following the concept of Sustainable Development, the commission went on to add  Yet in the end, sustainable development is not a xed state of harmony, but rather a process of change in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are made consistent with future as well as present needs. We do not pretend that the process is easy or straightforward. Painful choices have to be made. Thus, in the nal analysis, sustainable development must rest on political will. Sustainability and the closely related concept of Sustainable Development are, therefore, very human constructs whose objective is to insure the very survival of humanity in a reasonably civilized mode of existence. Here, however, I will focus primarily on Sustainability. The seriousness of the issue of Sustainability has become increasingly important and obvious over the last fty years driven by an increasing human population with increasing per capita resource consumption on a 3 planet which is after all nite. Note that the World population increased from approximately 2.5 billion in 4 1950 to about 7.0 billion in 2012. Furthermore, total World consumption expenditures rose from about 171 Billion in 1960 to approximately 44,000 billions in 2010 expressed in 2012 U.S. dollars. This is not to say that consumption is necessarily bad, but rather that there are so many people consuming so many resources that both the World environment and human consumption will have to be managed with far more care and delicacy than has been necessary in all of the historical past. A text such as the one being presented here is of paramount importance because it will help to educate the next generation of students on the very important subject of sustainability. Now sustainability is not exactly a discipline such as, for example, physics. Rather it is truly a metadiscipline drawing on nearly all of existing human knowledge in approximately equal parts and with more or less equal importance. This is not to say that dierent disciplines have not in the past drawn ideas from each other, creating hybrid disciplines such as, for instance, biophysics - a fusion of physics and biology. Rather, in Sustainability the range of ideas and issues reach from the depth of biological sciences to the physical sciences and to the social sciences, including politics. Additionally, the relative importance of each of these aspects seems to be about the same. The reasons for this inherent, perhaps unprecedented complexity, is that sustainability is about sustaining human existence which requires many things to be sustained including functioning economic, social, and political systems along with a supportive physical and biological environment and more. Hence, the eort to produce a text covering the breadth of sustainability must by necessity come from a comprehensive group of specialists as is the case here. This allows each eld of study to bring its own unique perspective and shed its own light on a very complex and important subject which could otherwise 1 This content is available online at < ;. Available for free at Connexions < ; 1 2 be intractable. The authors very interestingly point out in the preface that the text does not necessarily present a self-consistent set of ideas. Rather, a degree of diversity is accepted within the overall rubric of Sustainability and Science itself. This may be unusual for an academic text, but it is necessary here. The reason is that environmental problems of our time are both time-sensitive and evolving, and a complete understanding does not exist and may never exist. But the issues still have to be addressed in good faith, in a timely manner, with the best science on hand. With the reader's indulgence, I would like to draw an analogy to a physician who has the responsibility of healing or attempting to heal patients using the best available medical science in a timely manner, knowing that a complete understanding of medical science does not exist and, in fact, may never exist. It is my sincerest hope this work shared freely and widely will be an educational milestone as humanity struggles to understand and solve the enormous environmental challenges of our time. Further, the text Sustainability: A comprehensive Foundation, helps to provide the intellectual foundation that will allow students to become the engines that move and maintain society on the path of Sustainability and Sustainable Development through the dicult process of change alluded to in Our Common Future. Heriberto Cabezas Cincinnati, Ohio March 2012 Available for free at Connexions < ; Preface 5 This text is designed to introduce the reader to the essential concepts of sustainability. This subject is of vital importance  seeking as it does to uncover the principles of the long-term welfare of all the peoples of the planet  but is only peripherally served by existing college textbooks. The content is intended to be useful for both a broad-based introductory class on sustainability and as a useful supplement to specialist courses which wish to review the sustainability dimensions of their areas of study. By covering a wide range of topics with a uniformity of style, and by including glossaries, review questions, case studies, and links to further resources, the text has sucient range to perform as the core resource for a semester course. Students who cover the material in the book will be conversant in the language and concepts of sustainability, and will be equipped for further study in sustainable planning, policy, economics, climate, ecology, infrastructure, and more. Furthermore, the modular design allows individual chapters and sections to be easily appropriated  without the purchase of a whole new text. This allows educators to easily bring sustainability concepts, references, and case studies into their area of study. This appropriation works particularly well as the text is free  downloadable to anyone who wishes to use it. Furthermore, readers are encouraged to work with the text. Provided there is attribution to the source, users can adapt, add to, revise and republish the text to meet their own needs. Because sustainability is a cross-disciplinary eld of study, producing this text has required the bringing together over twenty experts from a variety of elds. This enables us to cover all of the foundational components of sustainability: understanding our motivations requires the humanities, measuring the challenges of sustainability requires knowledge of the sciences (both natural and social), and building solutions requires technical insight into systems (such as provided by engineering, planning, and management). Readers accustomed to textbooks that present material in a unitary voice might be surprised to nd in this one statements that do not always agree. Here, for example, cautious claims about climate change stand beside sweeping pronouncements predicting future social upheaval engendered by a warming world. And a chapter that includes market-based solutions to environmental problems coexists with others that call for increased government control. Such diversity of thought characterizes many of the elds of inquiry represented in the book; by including it,...
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