Chapter 18-Acid Base Equilibria - Acid-Base Equilibria I...

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Acid-Base Equilibria I. Acids and Bases A. Acids and bases have distinguishing physical and chemical properties. Challenge : Identify the following characteristics as being an acid or a base. Give an example. Tastes sour/Tastes bitter | Feels slippery/Feels prickly | Turns litmus red/Turns litmus blue Challenge : From a chemical standpoint, what determinesif a substanceis an acid or a base? B. Acid-Base Definitions 1. Arrhenius Arrhenius acids : HCl (g) H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Arrhenius acids: The 6 strong acids, all of the weak acids Challenge : Include the water molecule in the acid dissociation process.Name the products that result. Arrhenius bases : NaOH (s) Na + (aq) + OH - (aq) Arrhenius bases: All soluble Group I metal hydroxidesand oxides; some Group II. Practice : Identify the strong Arrhenius bases. Challenge : Water is both an Arrhenius acid and base – it’s “Amphoteric”. Explain and illustrate with equations. Practice : For each of the example acid and base given above, write the pertinent equilibria showing its acid-base behavior according to Arrhenius. 2. Br Ø nsted-Lowery Acids and Bases Br Ø nsted-Lowery acids: Br Ø nsted-Lowery bases : CU C1131 – Baker RAP Acid-Base Equilibria Dr. Christine Kelly Modified: 1.05.07 Page 1 of 21 H 2 O H 2 O
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Practice : Show how ammonia is a Br Ø nsted-Lowery base. Alkaloid compounds containing nitrogen are Br Ø nsted-Lowery bases: R R R -N : + H + R- NH + R R Amphetamine Ephedrine Phenylalanine Codeine Practice : Which of the following are best described Br Ø nsted-Lowery acids? Br Ø nsted-Lowery bases? HClO 4 CH 3 OH HI NH 3 CH 3 CO 2 H HOH LiOH H 2 N - NH 2 Nicotine, C 10 H 14 N 2 Practice : Identify each reactant in the following aqueousreactions as either an acid or a base. Specify the best classification for each acid and base…Arrhenius or Br Ø nsted-Lowery. HOBr + H 2 O OBr - + H 3 O + 2HClO 4 + Mg(OH) 2 Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 + 2H 2 O CU C1131 – Baker RAP Acid-Base Equilibria Dr. Christine Kelly Modified: 1.05.07 Page 2 of 21
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NH 3 + H 3 PO 4 H 2 PO 4 - + NH 4 + O 2- + H 2 O OH - + OH - NH 4 + + BrO 3 HBrO 3 + NH 3 Challenge : For the reactions above that are in equilibrium, the species to the right of the arrow act as reactants in the reverse direction. Identify the acid and base for the reverse reaction. 3. Lewis Acids and Bases Lewis acids : Lewis bases : Examples: BF 3 + : NH 3 F 3 B NH 3 Lewis acid Lewis base Adduct Source: Challenge : Define the terms “adduct” and coordinate covalent bond. Challenge : Do BF 3 and NH 3 fit any of the other definitions of acids and bases? CU C1131 – Baker RAP Acid-Base Equilibria Dr. Christine Kelly Modified: 1.05.07 Page 3 of 21
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Metal cation + xH 2 O  M(OH 2 ) x y+ Lewis acid Lewis base Adduct Mg 2+ (aq) + 4 H 2 O (l) Mg(OH 2 ) 4 2+ (aq) Al 3+ (aq) + 6 H 2 O (l) Al(OH 2 ) 6 3+ (aq) The hydrated metal ion adduct makesa solution acidic through the interaction of one of the water moleculesbound to the metal cation and a nearby water molecule: Al(H 2 O) 5 OH 2+ Al(H 2 O) 6 3+ H 2 O H 3 O + Electron density drawn toward Al 3+ Nearby H 2 O acts as base
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