ghettoization-segregation-and-white-flight.pdf - Ghettoization Segregation White Flight Tuesday Professor Mike Owen Benediktsson Email [email protected]

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Ghettoization, Segregation, White Flight Tuesday, October 24, 2017 Professor Mike Owen Benediktsson Email: [email protected]
Racial Segregation: A Fact of Urban Life Segregation, as shown in the 2010 Census : …each dot represents 25 people… (red=white; blue=black; yellow=Hispanic)
Origins of Segregation: The Original Ghetto (Europe) Jewish Ghetto, Rome Jewish Ghetto, Krakow Historically, the word “ghetto” describes “ legally sanctioned, segregated areas occupied by ethnic minorities .” - International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
Origins of Segregation: The Original Ghetto (U.S.) Jewish Lower East Side, c. 1910 Immigrant communities in Northeastern and Midwestern cities: High degree of cultural and social isolation rooted in language, religion, norms and social institutions. No legal barriers to exit, but cultural and social barriers.
Origins of Black Segregation / Ghettoization in the North: Jim Crow 1900: Following conclusion of Civil War, southern states and localities enacted a series of laws segregating schools, public places and transportation. Meanwhile, reconstruction fails and the South remains mired in poverty. Before 1910, 90% of the nation’s African-Americans still live in southern states.
Origins of Black Segregation in the North: The Great Migration Segregated Waiting Room in Train Terminal, Jacksonville, Florida, 1921 1910-1970: 6 Million African-Americans move to Northern, Midwestern and Western cities from Southern states. Causes : Lack of opportunity in South, Jim Crow laws, racial conflict and persecution.
Origins of Black Segregation in the North: Persecution of Black Residents in Northern Cities Responses to residential integration by whites: Racially motivated riots in northern cities (1900-1920) Post-1920: Isolated attacks and intimidation campaigns. Use of racial covenants to exclude black residents. Exclusive zoning, other measures ostensibly intended to maintain neighborhood aesthetics. Attacks on black home-buyers in Cicero, Illinois, 1951
Origins of Segregation in the North: White Suburbanization “Push” Factors: Postwar Housing Shortage Deteriorating social and economic conditions in cities Racial integration of formerly white urban neighborhoods
Origins of Black Segregation in the North: White Suburbanization “Pull” Factors encouraging suburbanization: Financial Incentives: FHA-backed loans went overwhelmingly to suburban homebuyers. Govt. funding racially and socioeconomically restricted. Subsidies for suburban development. Demographic Change: Quality of Life: Postwar Baby Boom Marketing of Middle-Class Suburban Lifestyle
1940: % Black, Philadelphia
1950: % Black, Philadelphia
1960: % Black, Philadelphia
1970: % Black, Philadelphia
1980: % Black, Philadelphia
1970: Poverty Rate, Philadelphia
1980: Poverty Rate, Philadelphia
1950:% Black, Bedford-Stuyvesant
1960:% Black, Bedford-Stuyvesant
1970:% Black, Bedford-Stuyvesant
1980:% Black, Bedford-Stuyvesant

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