Ghettoization, Segregation, White Flight Tuesday, October 24, 2017 Professor Mike Owen Benediktsson Email: [email protected]
Racial Segregation: A Fact of Urban Life Segregation, as shown in the 2010 Census : …each dot represents 25 people… (red=white; blue=black; yellow=Hispanic)
Origins of Segregation: The Original Ghetto (Europe)Jewish Ghetto, Rome Jewish Ghetto, Krakow Historically, the word “ghetto” describes “legally sanctioned, segregated areas occupied by ethnic minorities.” - International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences
Origins of Segregation: The Original Ghetto (U.S.)Jewish Lower East Side, c. 1910 Immigrant communities in Northeastern and Midwestern cities: •High degree of cultural and social isolation rooted in language, religion, norms and social institutions. •No legal barriers to exit, but culturaland socialbarriers.
Origins of Black Segregation / Ghettoization in the North: Jim Crow1900:Following conclusion of Civil War, southern states and localities enacted a series of laws segregating schools, public places and transportation. Meanwhile, reconstruction fails and the South remains mired in poverty. Before 1910, 90% of the nation’s African-Americans still live in southern states.
Origins of Black Segregation in the North: The Great MigrationSegregated Waiting Room in Train Terminal, Jacksonville, Florida, 1921 •1910-1970: 6 Million African-Americans move to Northern, Midwestern and Western cities from Southern states. •Causes: Lack of opportunity in South, Jim Crow laws, racial conflict and persecution.
Origins of Black Segregation in the North: Persecution of Black Residents in Northern CitiesResponses to residential integration by whites: •Racially motivated riots in northern cities (1900-1920) •Post-1920: •Isolated attacks and intimidation campaigns. •Use of racial covenants to exclude black residents. •Exclusive zoning, other measures ostensibly intended to maintain neighborhood aesthetics. Attacks on black home-buyers in Cicero, Illinois, 1951
Origins of Segregation in the North: White Suburbanization“Push” Factors: •Postwar Housing Shortage •Deteriorating social and economic conditions in cities •Racial integration of formerly white urban neighborhoods
Origins of Black Segregation in the North: White Suburbanization“Pull” Factors encouraging suburbanization: •Financial Incentives: •FHA-backed loans went overwhelmingly to suburban homebuyers. •Govt. funding racially and socioeconomically restricted. •Subsidies for suburban development. •Demographic Change:Quality of Life: •Postwar Baby BoomMarketing of Middle-Class Suburban Lifestyle