(6) QUAL59338 (TQM) Handouts (2019).pdf - PRAVEEN GOEL ASQ-Certified Quality Engineer Certified Quality Auditor Certified Manager of Quality and

(6) QUAL59338 (TQM) Handouts (2019).pdf - PRAVEEN GOEL...

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Unformatted text preview: PRAVEEN GOEL ASQ-Certified Quality Engineer Certified Quality Auditor Certified Manager of Quality and Organizational Excellence PKG - TQM (01) 1 PRAVEEN GOEL • Master’s Degree in Engineering from IIT, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (India) • 18 years of engineering experience • Worked as Quality Manager in Manufacturing • Working as Consultant in Quality o ISO Implementation and Documentation o Internal Quality Auditing • 14+ years of experience in Quality industry PKG - TQM (01) 2 PRAVEEN GOEL • 14+ years of experience of teaching at Sheridan College • Teaching various courses, such as: o International Standards for Quality (ISO) o Documentation o Quality Auditing o The Management of Total Quality (TQM) o Instrumentation & Process Control o Quality and Statistical Control o Health and Safety PKG - TQM (01) 3 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT REFER TO VARIOUS FILES AND INFORMATION POSTED ON SLATE (MUST READ CAREFULLY) • Course Outlines • CLASS PLAN AND POLICIES • Communication via E-mail • Submission of Assignments • Exam 1 (mid-term) • Exam 2 (final) • Project PKG - TQM (01) 4 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT • CLOSED books/notes Exam • Exam questions of the following types oMultiple Choice Questions (MCQ) PKG - TQM (01) 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT “50 – 50 Rule” Regardless of the final total marks, a student must obtain at least 50% on the exam component and 50% on the assignment / project component of this course separately, in order to obtain a passing grade in the course. Evaluation Plan Activity % Assignments 30 Project 20 Exam 1 (mid-term) 25 Exam 2 (final) 25 Total 100 PKG - TQM (01) 6 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT TEXTBOOK AND RECOMMENDED READING (1) Latest edition of: The Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence Handbook Editor: Russell T. Westcott Published by: ASQ Quality Press, USA (2) Professor’s presentations, class notes, and handouts PKG - TQM (01) 7 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT THE MANAGEMENT OF TOTAL QUALITY (TQM) PKG - TQM (01) 8 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT •INTRODUCTION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT •EVOLUTION OF TQM •ELEMENTS OF TQM •BENEFITS OF TQM •TQM IMPLEMENTATION •ASQ CODE OF ETHICS PKG - TQM (01) 9 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION • Total Quality Management (TQM) is defined as a qualitycentered, customer-focused, fact-based, team-driven, seniormanagement-led process to achieve an organization’s strategic goals through continual process improvement. • TQM is based on the participation of all members of an organization in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work. PKG - TQM (01) 10 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Gurus of TQM • Shewhart • Deming • Juran • Feigenbaum • Ishikawa • Crosby • Taguchi PKG - TQM (01) 11 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS PKG - TQM (01) 12 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS Product ⇒Reasonable price ⇒Reliable ⇒Available ⇒Safe ⇒Performance PKG - TQM (01) 13 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS Product (cont….) ⇒Ease of use ⇒Maintainable ⇒Aesthetics ⇒Durability ⇒Ease of disposal PKG - TQM (01) 14 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS Service ⇒Reasonable price ⇒Reliable ⇒Available ⇒Safe ⇒Responsiveness PKG - TQM (01) 15 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS Service (cont….) ⇒Competence ⇒Credibility ⇒Completeness ⇒Timeliness ⇒Communication PKG - TQM (01) 16 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT DIMENSIONS OF QUALITY • Eight dimensions of product quality management can be used at a strategic level to analyze quality characteristics. • The concept was defined by David Garvin. • Some of the dimensions are mutually reinforcing, whereas others are not; improvement in one may be at the expense of others. • Understanding the trade-offs desired by customers among these dimensions can help build a competitive advantage. PKG - TQM (01) 17 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 1. Performance: • Performance refers characteristics. to a product's primary operating • This dimension of quality involves measurable attributes; brands can usually be ranked objectively on individual aspects of performance. PKG - TQM (01) 18 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 2. Features: • Features are additional characteristics that enhance the appeal of the product or service to the user. PKG - TQM (01) 19 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 3. Reliability: • Reliability is the likelihood that a product will not fail within a specific time period. • This is a key element for users who need the product to work without fail. PKG - TQM (01) 20 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 4. Conformance: • Conformance is the precision with which the product or service meets the specified standards. PKG - TQM (01) 21 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 5. Durability: • Durability measures the length of a product’s life. • When the product can be repaired, estimating durability is more complicated. • The item will be used until it is no longer economical to operate it. • This happens when the repair rate and the associated costs increase significantly. PKG - TQM (01) 22 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 6. Serviceability: • Serviceability is the speed with which the product can be put into service when it breaks down, as well as the competence and the behaviour of the serviceperson. PKG - TQM (01) 23 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 7. Aesthetics: • Aesthetics is the subjective dimension indicating the kind of response a user has to a product. • It represents the individual’s personal preference. PKG - TQM (01) 24 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT 8. Perceived Quality: • Perceived Quality is the quality attributed to a product or service based on indirect measures. PKG - TQM (01) 25 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT EVOLUTION OF TQM • In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the developed countries of North America and Western Europe suffered economically in the face of stiff competition from Japan's ability to produce highquality goods at competitive cost. • For the first time since the start of the Industrial Revolution, the United Kingdom became a net importer of finished goods. • The United States undertook its own soul-searching, expressed most pointedly in the television broadcast of “IF JAPAN CAN, WHY CAN'T WE?” PKG - TQM (01) 26 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT EVOLUTION OF TQM (cont….) • Firms began re-examining the techniques of quality control invented over the past 50 years and how those techniques had been so successfully employed by the Japanese. • It was in the midst of this economic turmoil that TQM took root. • The history of total quality management (TQM) began initially as a term coined by some quality experts to describe its Japanesestyle management approach to quality improvement. PKG - TQM (01) 27 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT EVOLUTION OF TQM (cont….) An umbrella methodology for continually improving the quality of all processes, it draws on a knowledge of the principles and practices of: • The behavioral sciences • The analysis of quantitative and qualitative data • Economics theories • Process analysis PKG - TQM (01) 28 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT EVOLUTION OF TQM (cont….) • Today, TQM is the name for the philosophy of a broad and systemic approach to managing organizational quality. • Quality standards such as the ISO 9000 series and quality award programs such as the Deming Prize and the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award specify principles and processes that comprise TQM. PKG - TQM (01) 29 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Basic Approach TQM requires six basic concepts: 1) A commitment and involved management to provide long-term top-to-bottom organizational support. 2) An unwavering (firm) focus on the customer, both internally and externally. 3) Effective involvement and utilization of the entire work force. PKG - TQM (01) 30 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Basic Approach (cont….) 4) Continual improvement of the business and production process. 5) Treating suppliers as partners. 6) Establish performance measures, such as uptime, percent nonconforming, absenteeism, and customer satisfaction. PKG - TQM (01) 31 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Quantitative data is necessary to measure the continual quality improvement activity. PKG - TQM (01) 32 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM Customer-focused • The customer ultimately determines the level of quality. • No matter what an organization does to foster (promote) quality improvement; training employees, integrating quality into the design process, or upgrading computers or software; the customer determines whether the efforts were worthwhile. PKG - TQM (01) 33 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM (cont….) Total Employee Involvement • All employees participate in working toward common goals. • Total employee commitment can only be obtained after fear has been driven from the workplace, when empowerment has occurred, and when management has provided the proper environment. • High-performance work systems integrate continual improvement efforts with normal business operations. PKG - TQM (01) 34 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM (cont….) Process-centered • A fundamental part of TQM is a focus on process thinking. • A process is a series of steps that take inputs from suppliers (internal or external) and transforms them into outputs that are delivered to customers (internal or external). • The steps required to carry out the process are defined, and performance measures are continually monitored in order to detect unexpected variation. PKG - TQM (01) 35 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM (cont….) Integrated System • Although an organization may consist of many different functional specialties often organized into vertically structured departments, it is the horizontal processes interconnecting these functions that are the focus of TQM. PKG - TQM (01) 36 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM (cont….) Strategic and Systematic Approach • A critical part of the management of quality is the strategic and systematic approach to achieving an organization’s vision, mission, and goals. • This process, called strategic planning or strategic management, includes the formulation of a strategic plan that integrates quality as a core component. PKG - TQM (01) 37 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM (cont….) Continual Improvement • A large aspect of TQM is continual process improvement. • Continual improvement drives an organization to be both analytical and creative in finding ways to become more competitive and more effective at meeting stakeholder expectations. PKG - TQM (01) 38 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM (cont….) Fact-based Decision Making • In order to know how well an organization is performing, data on performance measures are necessary. • TQM requires that an organization continually collect and analyze data in order to improve decision making accuracy, achieve consensus, and allow prediction based on past history. PKG - TQM (01) 39 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS OF TQM (cont….) Communication • During times of organizational change, as well as part of day-today operation, effective communications plays a large part in maintaining morale and in motivating employees at all levels. • Communications involve strategies, method, and timeliness. PKG - TQM (01) 40 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF TQM ⇒Strengthened competitive position ⇒Adaptability to change ⇒Higher productivity ⇒Enhanced market image ⇒Elimination of waste and non-conformities ⇒Reduced costs ⇒Higher profitability PKG - TQM (01) 41 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT BENEFITS OF TQM (cont….) ⇒Improved customer focus and satisfaction ⇒Increased customer loyalty and retention ⇒Increased job security ⇒Improved employee morale ⇒Improved and innovative processes ⇒Greater emphasis on and awareness of the value of producing quality products and services PKG - TQM (01) 42 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF TQM • The TQM implementation process begins with senior management commitment. • The next step is the formation of the quality council. o The development of core values, a vision statement, a mission statement, and a quality policy statement with input from all personnel should be completed first. • The active involvement of middle managers is essential to the success of the TQM effort. PKG - TQM (01) 43 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF TQM (cont….) • Everyone needs to be trained in quality awareness and problem solving. • Progress is evaluated, and the plan is revised as needed. • Constant employee awareness through feedback on status is provided, and a recognition/reward process is established. PKG - TQM (01) 44 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT TQM IMPLEMENTATION PROBLEMS ⇒Lack of management commitment ⇒Inability to change organizational culture ⇒Lack of preparation ⇒Lack of continual training and education ⇒Incompatible organizational structure and isolated individuals ⇒Ineffective measurement techniques and lack of access to data ⇒Inadequate attention to customers ⇒Inadequate use of empowerment and teamwork PKG - TQM (01) 45 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ETHICS Ethics is the practice of applying a code of conduct based on moral principles to day-to-day actions to balance what is fair to individuals or organizations and what is right for society. ⇒Conflict of Interest ⇒Confidentiality Concerns ⇒Illegal or unsafe activity ⇒Records and funds PKG - TQM (01) 46 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ETHICS (cont….) 3-question test for determining what is an ethical choice in a given situation: 1)Is it legal? 2)Is it balanced? 3)How will it make me feel about myself? PKG - TQM (01) 47 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ASQ AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR QUALITY PKG - TQM (01) 48 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ASQ The American Society for Quality (ASQ) is a world leader in quality and knowledge-based global community of quality professionals dedicated to promoting and advancing quality tools, principles, and practices in their workplaces and communities. PKG - TQM (01) 49 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ASQ CODE OF ETHICS • To uphold and advance the honor and dignity of the profession, and in keeping with high standards of ethical conduct, I acknowledge that I: Fundamental Principles: I. Will be honest and impartial; will serve with devotion my employer, my clients, and the public. II. Will strive to increase the competence and prestige of the profession. III. Will use my knowledge and skill for the advancement of human welfare and in promoting the safety and reliability of products for public use. IV. Will earnestly endeavor to aid the work of the Society. PKG - TQM (01) 50 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Relations with the Public: 1.1 Will do whatever I can to promote the reliability and safety of all products that come within my jurisdiction. 1.2 Will endeavor to extend public knowledge of the work of the Society and its members that relates to the public welfare. 1.3 Will be dignified and modest in explaining my work and merit. 1.4 Will preface any public statements that I may issue by clearly indicating on whose behalf they are made. PKG - TQM (01) 51 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Relations with Employers and Clients: 2.1 Will act in professional matters as a faithful agent or trustee for each employer or client. 2.2 Will inform each client or employer of any business connections, interests, or affiliations that might influence my judgment or impair the equitable character of my services. 2.3 Will indicate to my employer or client the adverse consequences to be expected if my professional judgment is overruled. 2.4 Will not disclose information concerning the business affairs or technical processes of any present or former employer or client without his or her consent. 2.5 Will not accept compensation from more than one party for the same service without the consent of all parties. If employed, I will engage in supplementary employment of consulting practice only with the consent of my employer. PKG - TQM (01) 52 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Relations with Peers: 3.1 Will take care that credit for the work of others is given to those to whom it is due. 3.2 Will endeavor to aid the professional development and advancement of those in my employ or under my supervision. 3.3 Will not compete unfairly with others; will extend my friendship and confidence to all associates and those with whom I have business relations. ⇒Silent about relations with auditee PKG - TQM (01) 53 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT • PRINCIPLES OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT • PLANNING, ORGANIZING, STAFFING, DIRECTING, CONTROLLING • QUALITY SYSTEMS AND MODELS • EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT AND EMPOWERMENT • QUALITY FUNCTION • QUALITY SYSTEM EFFECTIVENESS • BENCHMARKING • CONTINUAL PROCESS IMPROVEMENT • SKIP LEVEL MEETINGS PKG - TQM (02) 1 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES OF TQM POSDC • Planning • Organizing • Staffing • Directing • Controlling PKG - TQM (02) 2 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PLANNING • Planning is the setting of goals and objectives and the methods for achieving them. • Planning deals with ideas, organizing deals with things and making decisions, such as how to arrange and relate work for the most effective accomplishment of objectives. PKG - TQM (02) 3 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Planning Activities: ⇒Set objectives ⇒Develop strategies ⇒Establish priority and sequence ⇒Budget ⇒Develop policies ⇒Set procedures PKG - TQM (02) 4 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ORGANIZING • Organizing involves structuring the organization and the work to be done, obtaining resources and allocating the resources and authority in order to carry out the plans. Organizing Activities: ⇒Establish organizational structure ⇒Delineate (describe) relationships ⇒Create position descriptions ⇒Establish position qualifications PKG - TQM (02) 5 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT STAFFING • Staffing is an integral part of organizing. • It deals with the management of people rather than ideas or things. • Effective staffing requires the selection of competent people for positions in the organization. Staffing Activities: ⇒Select staff ⇒Orient staff ⇒Train staff ⇒Develop staff PKG - TQM (02) 6 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT DIRECTING / LEADING • Directing is guiding members of the organization to achieve the mission, plans and objectives of the organizational work unit. • By leading, managers instil enthusiasm in employees and motivate their performance by communicating with them and maintaining good interpersonal relations. PKG - TQM (02) 7 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT CONTROLLING • Controlling involves monitoring activities and results to ensure that desired outcomes are obtained. Controlling Activities: ⇒Establish reporting system ⇒Develop performance standards ⇒Measure results ⇒Take corrective actions ⇒Recognize / Reward PKG - TQM (02) 8 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ⇒Monitoring is an important part of control. ⇒In the PDCA cycle, the Check step is monitoring. PKG - TQM (02) 9 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY SYSTEMS AND MODELS Various meanings and definitions of ‘quality’ • Conformance to requirements • Fitness for use • Meeting customer requirements • Superiority to competitors • ZERO non-conformity • CONTINUAL IMPROVEMENT PKG - TQM (02) 10 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Drivers of Quality • Customers • Products / services • Employee satisfaction • Organizational focus • Competitors PKG - TQM (02) 11 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Little ‘q’ versus big ‘Q’ JURAN proposed the little ‘q’ and big ‘Q’ in Quality o ‘q’ = the products in manufacturing (tactical sense) o ‘Q’ = ALL processes in all industries (strategic sense) PKG - TQM (02) 12 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT Characteristics Products and Services Little q Big Q Manufactured goods, point All products and services of service whether for sale or not Processes Processes directly related All processes; to the manufacture of manufacturing, support, goods business, etc. Customer Clients who products Industries Cost of poor quality buy Manufacturing the All who are affected; external and internal All industries – service, government, etc., whether for profit or not Costs associated with All costs that would deficient manufactured disappear if everything goods were perfect PKG - TQM (02) 13 TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT QUALITY MODELS QMS (Quality Ma...
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