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1Running head: POPULATION HEALTH INTERVENTIONPopulation Health InterventionAmanda HaggLiberty University
2POPULATION HEALTH INTERVENTIONPopulation Health InterventionAccording to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is not defined solely by the absence of illness or disability, but by the overall well-being of an individual in three categories: physical, mental, and social (DiClemente, Salazar, & Crosby, 2019). The idea of population health encompasses a comprehensive approach to overall health that takes into consideration the specific health disparities and outcomes within a population, factors of health that may influence the distribution of care within a community, and the policies and interventions that may affect thecare provided to individuals or groups within specific populations and communities (Nash, Fabius, Skoufalos, Clark, & Horowitz, 2016). Pregnant women as a population can be extremely complex. Focusing on the health of thefetus is equally important as the overall well-being of the mother. In the United States, the rate ofmaternal morbidity and mortality is at an all-time high. Currently, 14 out of every 100,000 women who give birth in the United States will die while 163 out of every 100,000 women will experience severe morbidity during or immediately following pregnancy (Geller et al., 2018). Additionally, data shows that fetal and neonatal demise occurs in 5.96 of every 1,000 live births in the United States (Wingate, Smith, Petrini, & Barfield, 2017). When a woman does not obtain adequate prenatal care during pregnancy, the rate of maternal and/or neonatal morbidity and mortality increases significantly. Unfortunately, women in the United States who live in rural areas may have difficulty obtaining the prenatal care they need during pregnancy due to accessibility, financial, or transportation issues (Miteniece, Pavlova, Shengelia, Rechel, & Groot,2018) In order to improve perinatal outcomes, it is crucial that these women receive the care theyneed (Meyer et al., 2016).
3POPULATION HEALTH INTERVENTIONThe American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that pregnant women receive routine care every four weeks until the 28thweek of pregnancy, every two to three weeks until the 36thweek of pregnancy, and weekly thereafter until delivery (Heaman, Newburn-Cook, Green, Elliott, & Helewa, 2008). Inadequate prenatal care can be defined three separate ways: no prenatal care, limited prenatal care (less than three visits), and late prenatal care (care initiated after the 20thweek of pregnancy). In the United States, 15% of women receive inadequate prenatal care in pregnancy (Osterman & Martin, 2018). Woman who receive late, limited, or no prenatal care are at a higher risk of developing complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes among many other pregnancy related complications that could lead to death (Heaman et al., 2008). Furthermore, the fetus of a woman who does not receive adequate care is at an extremely high risk of their own slew of complications that includes low birth weight, undiagnosed birth defects, and stillbirth (Monahan et al., 2018).