Chapter 1 Lecture Notes.docx - Chem 1035 Chapter 1 1 of 28...

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Chem. 1035 Chapter 1 1 of 28Chapter 1Keys to the Study of Chemistry Chemistry: Study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes. Also known as the central science.Matter: Anything that has mass and occupies space. Space: Anything that has volume There are physical properties (color, melting point, density) and chemical properties (Flammable, reactivity) (defined later) Physical Changes: Phase changes(s-l-g) L I Chemical Changes: Reactions (reactants to products) MEASUREMENTSQuantitative(numbers)/Qualitative(observations)
Chem. 1035 Chapter 1 2 of 28Device/Observer There are 3 parts to every measurement:1. Number (how a string measures to a ruler) 2. Units 3. Uncertainty (Walmart ruler vs. Hardware ruler) Scientific Method-Observe/Idea-Hypothesis-Experiment (modify as needed)-With enough experiments hypothesis becomes a theory -More experiments -Law
Chem. 1035 Chapter 1 3 of 28UNITSTwo Systems: 1. English System:A system of units used only in the United StatesLength: Inches, Feet, Yards, Miles Mass: Ounces, Pounds, Tons Volume: Teaspoon, Tablespoon, Cup, Pint, Quart, Gallon, Keg, Barrel3 tsp = 1 tbs2 c = 1 p2 p = 1q4 q = 1 gallon15.5 gal = 1 keg2 kegs = 1 barrel2. SI (Metric) System:Used all over the world and in science. Units are basedon multiples of 10 and are converted to other units by means of prefixes.
Chem. 1035 Chapter 1 4 of 28Common Decimal Prefixes Used with SI UnitsPrefix*Prefix SymbolMeaningExample[using gram (g) and meter (m)]teraT1x10121 teragram (Tg) = 1x1012ggigaG1x1091 gigagram (Gg) = 1x109gmegaM1x1061 megagram(Mg) = 1x106gkilok1x1031 kilogram (kg) = 1x103g (1000g)hectoh1x1021 hectogram (hg) = 1x102gdekada1x1011 dekagram (1 dag) = 1x101g1x100decid1x10–11 decimeter (1 dm) = 1x10–1m (0.1)centic1x10–21 centimeter (1 cm) = 1x10–2m (0.01)millim1x10–31 millimeter (1 mm) = 1x10–3m (0.001)microμ1x10–61 micrometer (1 μm) = 1x10–6mnanon1x10–91 nanometer (1 nm) = 1x10–9mpicop1x10–121 picometer (1 pm) = 1x10–12mfemtof1x10–151 femtometer (1 fm) = 1x10–15m
Chem. 1035 Chapter 1 5 of 28*The prefixes most frequently used by chemists appear in bold type.

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