Psychology Chapter 12 study guide

Psychology Chapter 12 study guide - Psychology Chapter 12 1...

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Psychology Chapter 12 1.) 4 Theories of Inspiration: a. Instinct Theory (evolutionary perspective): Rather than explaining human behaviors, the early instinct theorists were simply naming them. To name a behavior is not to explain it. To qualify as an instinct, a complex behavior must have a fixed pattern throughout a species and be unlearned. Most psychologists view human behavior as directed by physiological needs and by psychological wants. b. Drive- Reduction theory: When the original instinct theory of motivation collapsed, it was replaces by drive-reduction theory or the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused state that drives the organism to reduce the need by, say eating or drinking. The physiological aim of drive-reduction is homeostasis or the maintenance of a steady internal state. Not only are we pushed by our need to reduce drives, we also are pulled by incentives or positive or negative stimuli that lure or repel us. When there is both a need and an incentive, we feel strongly driven. c. Arousal Theory: Some motivated behaviors actually increase arousal. Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal. Having all our biological needs satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation. Lacking stimulation, we feel bored and look for a way to increase arousal to some optimum level. However, with too much stimulation comes stress, and we then look for a way to decrease arousal. d. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: A system of needs with a pyramid like structure. As we progress through the pyramid we try to reach a level of self-actualization which is the need to live to one’s fullest and unique potential. 2.) Homeostasis is the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. The body’s temperature regulation system is an example of homeostasis. 3.) Aspects of hunger: a. Glucose: The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. Insulin diminishes glucose partly by converting it to stored fat. The body is normally adept at maintaining its blood glucose level. But if that level drops, your hunger increases. b. Insulin: Converts glucose to fat. c. Leptin: Chemical secreted by fat cells that signal the brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger. d. Hypothalamus: Region of the brain that controls hunger. Monitors the body’s appetite hormones. e. Cultural effects: The media provides us with images of what we “should” look like. This causes many of the common eating disorders that w see today. 4.) BMR and Set Point:
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a. BMR: The rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when the body is at rest.
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