CHAPTER 2_ Science of Life in the Universe.docx - CHAPTER...

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CHAPTER 2: Science of Life in the Universe Ancient Roots of Astronomysun rises in east & sets in weststars move through sky in regular fashion - constellations in dif seasonsmoon goes thru monthly series of phasesancients observed all of this - constructed observatories (Stonehenge, Mayans)Planets Known in Ancient Times Mercurydifficult to see; always close to the SunVenusvery bright when visible - morning or evening “star”Marsnoticeably redJupitervery brightSaturnmoderately brightThe GreeksThayles first natural explanation of the universePlato & Aristotlesystemization of scientific thoughtGreeks laid foundation for modern science ~ trying to understand nature without resorting to supernatural explanations (eg: sun moves bc of Apollo…)debate & test ideas - created models of natureGeocentic ModelAnaximanderstars move in circles around polar starHaven isa spare around the EarthEarth is not flat (his model: cylinder)Aristotleshadow of Earth on the Moon - spherical earthEratosthenesmeasured circumference of the earthstadia = 24901 milesPtolemy’s Geocentric Modelearth is at the centersun orbits earthplants orbit on small circles whose centers orbit Earth on larger circles ~ small circles around the planet while orbiting
the smaller circles = epicycles model was standard from AD 100 - 1500’s~ most of the time we think earth is center of the universeRetrograde Motionvery difficult to explain in geocentric modeleasy to explain in heliocentric modellike the sun, planets move eastwards towards sunbut as we pass by them in our orbit, they move west relative to the stars for a few weeks or months/ noticeable over many nights; on a single night, a planet rises i east & sets in west…Spread of Modern ScienceHellenistic Worldestablished by Alexander the Great tutored by Aristotle, who conquered the largest empire of the timeAlexandria library: preeminent center of research for 700 yearsfounded by Ptolemy Idestroyed in later Roman Empire & finally by the MoslemsMiddle Ages & Modern EraIslamic renaissance: -> Baghdad -> CairoEuropean renaissance: -> Byzantine -> Italy -> Western Europe

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Term
Winter
Professor
Bergins
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