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12. Theory of Stress, Coping and Health Behavior 10-19.pptx...

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Unformatted text preview: Theory of Stress, Coping and Health Behavior Stress Subjective feeling produced by events that are uncontrollable or threatening Stress is "the non-specific response of the body to any demand". Hans Selye, MD Eustress Eustress can be defined as a pleasant or curative stress. We can't always avoid stress, in fact, sometimes we don't want to. Often, it is controlled stress that gives us our competitive edge in performance related activities like athletics, giving a speech, or acting Distress Distress is an unpleasant or diseaseproducing stress. Chronic, sustained, uncontrolled stress of a negative type may lead to a compromised immune system, illness, and even death. As a result, we all should become more aware of common or persistent distressors in our lives and initiate methods for managing them. Stressors Demands made by the internal or external environment that upset the individual’s homeostasis, thus affecting their physical and psychological wellbeing and requiring action to restore that balance or equilibrium Stressors – events that cause stress Catastrophes Major life events – good and bad! Daily Hassles Cannon (1932) Described fight-or-flight reaction Stress and Gender Perception of events as being stressful tends to differ between the gender Emotional response to stress may also differ Coping strategies have been observed as different "tend-and-befriend" The model, called "tend-andbefriend" by its developers, won't replace fight-or-flight. Rather, it adds another dimension to the stressresponse arsenal, says University of California, Los Angeles, psychologist Shelley Taylor, PhD, who, along with five colleagues, developed the model. females respond to stressful situations In particular, they propose that females respond to stressful situations by protecting themselves and their young through nurturing behaviors--the "tend" part of the model--and forming alliances with a larger social group, particularly among women--the "befriend" part of the model. Males, in contrast, show less of a tendency toward tending and befriending, sticking more to the fight-or-flight response, they suggest. huge gap in the stress response literature The tend-and-befriend model fills what Taylor sees as a huge gap in the stress response literature: namely, that almost all the studies have been conducted in males and so, therefore, upheld fight-or-flight as the main response to stress. The tend-and-befriend response, in contrast, fits better the way females respond to stress. It builds on the brain's attachment/caregiving system, which counteracts the metabolic activity associated with the traditional fightor-flight stress response--increased heart rate, blood pressure and cortisol levels--and leads to nurturing and affiliative behavior. the way females respond to stress fight-or-flight less likely in females. From research into the neuroendocrine responses responsible for fight-or-flight, for example, they document that, although women do show the same immediate hormonal and sympathetic nervous system response to acute stress, other factors intervene to make fight-orflight less likely in females. female aggression appears to be more cerebral in nature In terms of the fight response, while male aggression appears to be regulated by androgen hormones, such as testosterone, and linked to sympathetic reactivity and hostility, female aggression isn't. Instead, female aggression appears to be more cerebral in nature--moderated by social circumstances, learning, culture and the situation--and in animals "confined to situations requiring defense," write the researchers. the hormone oxytocin In terms of flight, fleeing too readily at any sign of danger would put a female's offspring at risk, a response that might reduce her reproductive success in evolutionary terms. Consistent with this idea, studies in rats suggest there may be a physiological response to stress that inhibits flight. This response is the release of the hormone oxytocin, which enhances relaxation, reduces fearfulness and decreases the stress responses typical to the fight-or-flight response. important behaviors like affiliation Adds Taylor: Mainstream stress researchers "have been very quick to study behaviors like aggression and withdrawal and have failed to notice very important behaviors like affiliation. We think it's cute when women call up their sisters when they're under stress. But no one has realized that that is a contemporaneous manifestation of one of the oldest biological systems. Our focus on fight-or-flight has kept us from recognizing that there are systems that are as old as fight-or-flight that are tremendously important." This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA Experimental approach to question: Is stress related to susceptibility to illness? Cohen, Tyrrell & Smith (1997) 1. Obtained reports of stressful life events according to Holmes & Rahe’s criteria 2. Received nose drops with or without cold virus 3. What happened? Participants w/more stress got more colds! Consistent w/GAS Transactional Theory of Stress and Coping • In this model, stressful experiences are construed as person-environment transactions wherein the impact of an external stressor, or demand, is mediated by the person’s appraisal of the stressor and the psychological, social, and cultural resources at his disposal PRIMARY APPRAISAL STRESSOR Relevant to you? Relevant but not threatening Stressful...relevant AND threatening SECONDARY APPRAISAL The evaluation of personal resources to cope with the threat... “Can I deal...?” Stressors When faced with a stressor, a person evaluates the potential harm or threat (primary appraisal), as well as his ability to alter the situation and manage negative emotional reactions (secondary appraisal) Coping strategie s Emotion-Focused some people tend to ‘awfulize’ everything The words we use to giving meaning to our stressors can affect our appraisals This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA Actual coping efforts, aimed at problem management (strategies directed at changing a stressful situation) emotional regulation (strategies aimed at changing the way one thinks or feels about a stressful situation) give rise to the outcomes of the coping process (adaptation) (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984) Coping Efforts Primary Appraisal Primary appraisal is a person’s judgment about the significance of an event as stressful, positive, controllable, challenging, benign, or irrelevant Two basic primary appraisals are perceptions of susceptibility to the threat and perceptions of the severity of the threat Primary Appraisal • Appraisal of personal risk and threat severity prompt efforts to cope (problem focused; emotion focused) with the stressor • However, heightened perceptions of risk can also generate distress. Appraisals of high threat can also prompt escape/avoidance behaviors Primary Appraisal • Primary appraisals can also serve to minimize the significance of the threat, particularly when the health threat is ambiguous or uncertain • Other primary appraisals involve motivational relevance and causal focus of the stressor Primary Appraisal • When a stressor is appraised as having a major impact on a person’s goals or concerns, that person is likely to experience anxiety • Perceiving oneself as responsible for the stressor can generate guilt and depression Secondary Appraisal • Secondary appraisal is an assessment of the person’s coping resources and options; it addresses what one can do about the situation • Key examples are the perceived ability to change the situation, perceived ability to manage one’s emotional reactions to the threat, and expectations about the effectiveness of one’s coping resources Perceived Control • Perceived control may improve physical well-being by increasing the possibility that the person will adopt recommended health behaviors • However, beliefs about personal control are likely to be adaptive only to the extent that they fit with reality • Self-efficacy is specific for a given behavior Coping Efforts • problem management strategies are directed at changing the situation; more adaptive when the stressor is changeable • emotion focused efforts aim to change the way one thinks or feels about it; more adaptive when the stressor is not changeable Coping Strategies Problem Management Active Coping Problem solving Most Adaptive to problems that are changeable Information Seeking Emotional Regulation Social support Venting **Feelings of Avoidance and denial Directed at changing the way one thinks or feels about a Stressful situation **Generally considered maladaptive Other coping responses to health threats Meaning-based coping Positive reinterpretation, Acceptance Religion and spirituality Outcomes Adaptation • Coping outcomes represent individuals’ adaptations to the stressors, following from their appraisal of the situation and resources, and influenced by coping efforts • The main categories of outcomes are emotional wellbeing, functional status, and health behaviors Coping Styles • Coping StylesOptimism the most widely researched coping style is dispositional optimism - the tendency to have positive generalized expectations for outcomes. Appears to exert effects on each of the key processes of the model Optimism Health Benefits of Optimism better health habits better immune functioning and fewer illnesses less severe illnesses fewer symptoms of poor health faster recovery from illness and injury better adjustment to serious illness decreased psychological illness and distress a tendency to live longer Buffers Against Stress Social Support - emotional - appraisal - informational Hardiness - commitment - challenge - Internal Locus Optimism Coping with Stress Explanation of the relationship between social support and stress Coping Styles Information Seeking attentional styles monitoring (seeking relevant information) vs. blunting (avoiding such information) Locus of Control • a generalized belief about one’s ability to control events by virtue of one’s own efforts. Internal LOC: initiate change on their own; external LOC: more likely to be influenced by others. Considered to be a generalized belief rather than situationspecific Locus of Control Scale • has both direct effects and stressbuffering effects on well-being. The stress-buffering hypothesis predicts that SS will strengthen in its positive effects on adjustment and physical well-being as a stressor becomes more intense or persistent • the direct effects of SS have been observed primarily in studies assessing the extent of SS networks Social Support Social Support Stress Management Interventions Antonovsky, A. (1979). Health, stress, and coping. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cannon, W. B. (1932). The wisdom of the body. New York: Norton. References Felitti, V. J., Anda, R. F., Nordenberg, D., Williamson, D. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., . . . Marks, J. S. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245-258. Folkman, S., Lazarus, R., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, Al, & Gruen, R. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 9921003. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The Social Readjustment Rating Scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11, 213-218. Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York: McGraw-Hill. Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer. References Pearlin, L. I., & Schooler, C. (1978). The structure of coping. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19(1), 2-21. Selye, H. (1956). The stress of life. New York: McGrawHill. ...
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