HD 216- prelim 2 complete study guide

HD 216- prelim 2 complete study guide - Gender Identity...

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Gender Identity Steinberg, pp. 292-294:   What is androgyny? Individuals who are both highly masculine and highly feminine  o Ex) some people are both highly ambitious (a trait considered  masculine) and highly sensitive (a trait considered feminine)    Explain the gender intensification hypothesis and how it relates to boys  and girls in adolescence.   Gender intensification hypothesis o The idea that pressures to behave in sex-appropriate ways intensify  during adolescence, especially in girls   Many of the sex differences observed between adol. boys  and girls result from acceleration in socialization to act  stereotypically masculine and feminine  girls become disengaged from math and science boys become less emotionally expressive  Describe Gilligan’s theory of the loss of voice in adolescent girls.  During adol. girls begin to realize that they have been socialized for are  not valued in male-dominated society  o Girls feel caught between what they have been told is correct for  their gender (e.g. being caring and nurturant) and what they can  see is valued by society (e.g. being assertive and independent) Girls becomes less confident and less sure of themselves  How did Harter find that gender role identity is related to loss of voice in  girls?  Found it was more likely to happen to those with an especially feminine  gender-role identity  How are masculinity, femininity and androgyny related to self-image and  peer acceptance in adolescent boys and girls?
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Benefits of androgyny to self-image is greater for girls  o The masculine component of androgyny is associated with better  mental health o Androgyny girls feel better about themselves than very masculine  or very feminine girls  o Masculine boys (not androgynous) show highest levels of self- acceptance  o Boy suffer greater self-image problems when deviate from norm  Boys are socialized to not adopt feminine traits  Peer acceptance: o Highest for androgynous girls and masculine boys  Steinberg, pp. 322:  What did Harter find was the relationship between adolescents’ gender role  orientation and the social support they received from others and loss of  voice? Studied of “level of voice” among girls and boys o Did not find sex differences hypothesized by Gilligan o Did not find that females voices diminished throughout adol.  o She found that: Adolt’s gender role orientation and social support from  others was predictive loss of voice The following suffered loss of voice o Girls with highly feminine gender role  orientation o Boys and girls who felt significant others did 
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