HD260 final review - Chapter 18 Active ingredients are the...

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Chapter 18 Active ingredients – are the features of those which a person is particularly attuned Chapter 1 o What is Personality Personality implies stable and coherent individual differences that can be described or predicted o 6 major levels of analysis Trait dispositional level Tries to identify consistencies in the basic expressions of personality, conceptualized as stable personality characteristics Psychodynamic motivational level Probes the motivations, conflicts, and defenses – often unconscious – that may underlie diverse aspects of personality Phenomenological level Focuses on the inner experiences of the person and his or her way of seeing and interpreting the world Behavioral conditioning level Analyzes specific patterns of behavior that characterize individuals and identifies the conditions that regulate their occurrence Social cognitive level Focuses on the distinctive patterns of thoughts, expectations- beliefs, goals-values, emotional reactions, and self regulatory efforts that characterize the person Biological level Explores the biological bases of personality, including the tole of heredity, the brain, and evolution Chapter 2 o Studying persons: sources of information Case studies A method used to evaluate the individual intensively Naturalistic observations Useful when aspects of behavior cannot or should not be manipulated Remote behavior sampling and daily diary studies Allows researchers to collect samples of behavior from
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respondents as they live their daily lives Measurement of autonomic nervous system EKG, plethysmograph, GSR, EEG Scan neural activity PET scan o Establishing and quantifying relationships Correlational approach Utilizes statistical analysis to measure whether two phenomena or variables are related to one another Correlation coefficient A way to mathematically represent how two variables are related o Experimental approach Tries to demonstrate causal relations by manipulating one variable – the dependant variable – and measureing the effects on a second variable o Validity Construct validity Content valididty Criterion validity Concurrent Predictive Chapter 3 o Types and traits Personality types refer to discrete categories of people that have similar features of characteristics (physically, psychologically, or behaviorally) Carl Jung Divided people into introverts and extroverts Traits Basic and stable qualities of a person Continuous dimensions on which individual differences may be arranged Trait theorists conceptualize traits as underlying properties, qualities, or processes that exist in a person o Gordon Allport Traits are the ultimate realities of psychological organization Traits are the general and enduring mental structures that account for consistency in behavior
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