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Exam 1 Pt. 1 Freedmen's Bureau ●The first kind of primitive welfare agency used to provide food, clothing, medical care, and education to freedman and to white refugees. First to establish school for blacks to learn to read. 13th Amendment ●Abolition of slavery (involuntary servitude) ○(25-30% population freed) 14th Amendment ●Citizenship given to ex-slaves. ●Leading ex-Confederates denied office. ●Ex-Confederates forced to repudiate their debts and pay pensions to their own (CSA) veterans, plus taxes for the pensions of Union veterans. 15th Amendment ●Suffrage given to black males. J.P. Morgan ●He was a banker who financed the reorganization of railroads, insurance companies, and banks. He bought out Carnegie and in 1901 he started the United States Steel Corporation. Pullman Strike ●A 1894 strike by railroad workers upset by drastic wage cuts. The strike was led by socialist Eugene Debs but not supported by the American Federation of Labor. Eventually President Grover Cleveland intervened and federal troops forced an end to the strike. The strike highlighted both divisions within labor and the government's new