memLaw studyGuide3 - The Bransford-Franks data with adults...

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The Bransford-Franks data with adults The Reyna-Kieran data with children The McDermott & Watson (2001) experiments - ENCODING DURATION: LONGER = LESS FALSE MEMORY -Deep processing (gist) -Shallow processing (verbatim) Deep processing should elevate FM Bjork’s directed forgetting “Forget” yields lower true recall than “remember” This should be a verbatim suppression effect because verbatim traces are harder to consolidate SO: “Forget” instructions should elevate FM The key factors that control retrieval are: - Length of retrieval duration [gist fast, verbatim slow] - Verbatim cuing [again, think encoding specificity] - Retrieval instructions Recall tests provide better retrieval cues for verbatim than recognition tests do [because FM probes are not directly presented] Un. Haifa by Koriat et al. - FM (intrusions: “chair”) are greatly reduced by optional reporting but TM is not affected Degradation of memory can be of 2 sorts - Availability - Accessibility Chapter 4 - 3 stages of storing are 1) storage (encoding, post storage consolidation of memory traces), 2) retrieval, the supervised access on recognition or recall tests, 3) Forgetting, refers to declines in quality or accessibility that occurs between memory tests - Storing Memories dimensions include o Duration – length of time that target events are experiences o Repetition – how many times target events or their meaning are experienced
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o Deep and shallow processing – concentrating on the meaning content or surface form o Distinctiveness – the perceptual salience of target events o Consolidation activities – concentrating on deleting or preserving particular aspects of experience - Advanced storage of Gist traits – subjects appear to deposit meaning about target events (gist traces) well before they have completed processing the events surface form (verbatim traces) o Memorial mechanism for creating false reports tends to become available in the brain earlier than the memory mechanism for suppressing them o Indirect-without-direct – performance on an indirect test is successful (suggesting semantic content was processed when words were flashed) but performance on direct test is unsuccessful (no conscious awareness) -
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