Mem and Law Final - PRELIM 2 CONCEPTS Broad categories of...

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PRELIM 2 CONCEPTS: Broad categories of human knowledge (e.g., animals, planets,  precious gems) EXEMPLARS: Instances that satisfy the definition of a particular concept (e.g.,  "dog," "Mars," "diamond") Chapter 8 “METACOGNITION” - Metacognition o Refers to peoples “cognition about cognitive phenomena” this  concept was first introduced by John Flavel The idea is that some cognitive states and processes are  about other cognitive states and processes - 3 concepts of metamemory are: knowledge, monitoring, control - Monitoring o Involves assessing the current state or ongoing progress of any  aspect of learning and retrieval Typically measured by having individuals make subjective  judgments about memory while they are learning or  retrieving information o Monitoring process and control process may occur at any stage of  learning, during encoding, retention or retrieval - Control o Involves the regulation of ongoing learning and retrieval processes.  Ex. Deciding you are finished studying Measured by allowing individuals to regulate their learning  and seeing how long they work on hard vs easy material
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- During encoding, monitoring is often measured by judgments of learning  (JOL) and control is measured by initiation and termination of search - JOL o Is a rating of the likelihood of correctly recalling a given item on the  criterion test (1-100%) o Students JOL has some validity at predicting recall, but measure of  accuracy did not provide an estimate of the level of accuracy Estimating the level of accuracy is possible by correlating an  individuals judgments with performance on the criterion test,  gives relative a curacy or resolution.  o Accuracy is much lower for immediate JOL .38, very high for  delayed JOL at .90 - Feeling of Knowledge (FOK) o Is limited to items that were not correctly recalled, participants rate  the likelihood they will later correctly identify the right response  Ex. Tip of the tongue - RJR Method o Hart’s theory of Recall, Judgment, Recognition Hart found that accuracy of FOK judgments was above  chance at predicting performance on recognition tests - Confidence Judgment o Ratings on confidence when answering questions Absolute Accuracy or Calibration – pertains to the degree to  which the magnitude of the judgments accurately reflects the  level of performance Hard-Easy Effect - Difficult items produce vast  overconfidence, and easier items produce under confidence Developing reasons for one’s answers can improve  calibration When people make confidence judgments they don’t  consider evidence that contradicts the potential validity of  their answer (they should, increases calibration)
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