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BIOL1103 - Brickman Fall 2007 Review For Cumulative Midterm I. Chemistry, Energy, and Carbohydrates (12 questions) 1. Global Cycling : a. How does carbon enter the food chain? How is carbon released back into the environment. List three ways in which carbon in a tree can be returned back into the atmosphere. Decomposition, plant and animal respiration (burning of fossil fuels is another way b. Why do organisms need to absorb nitrogen from the environment? It is required for DNA, RNA, and all proteins 2. Chemistry : a. Covalent bonds: Be able to describe what a covalent bond is and how it differs from an ionic bond. Compare a non-polar (O2, CH4, C2) with a polar covalent bonds (OP, OH, NH, SH), and give an example of each. Why would a molecule be hydrophobic (nonpolar, non-charged) or hydrophilic (polar or charged), and how would this affect its behavior in water? b. Hydrogen bonds (water molecules and DNA bonds between bases) and pH: Give examples that we discussed this semester where hydrogen bonds are important. Can you describe a hydrogen bond including why it affects what molecules will dissolve in water? What is meant by having a low pH? If you were told to avoid acid foods, what would that mean in terms of pH (acids break down enzyme’s bonds, which messes up enzyme shape, which messes up its function). How would you neutralize an acid? (throw a base on it) 3. Energy : a. How can you compare two molecules and predict which one has more or less potential energy? (The more stable the molecule is, the more potential energy it has) How can you classify a reaction as exergonic or endergonic? (often work together; exergonic is a heat-giving reaction (larger substances are broken down into smaller substances, releasing heat), endergonic is building up smaller pieces into a larger form, using up energy in the process). Be able to give an example of an exergonic and an endergonic reaction. (exergonic—starches breaking down into sugars, endergonic—simple glucose molecules brought together to form glycogen). Which one requires energy? (endergonic) releases energy (exergonic)? How does how ordered or disorded the molecules are play into this? Describe the role ATP plays in the cell? 4. Carbohydrates : Complete the following table: Carbohydrate Class: Chemical Names Example of a food containing them: Function of Each and Where Found Simple Sugars: 1. glucose Corn syrup: Glucose: cell energy
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BIOL1103 - Brickman Fall 2007 1. monosaccharides 2. disacharrides 2. fructose 3. galactose 4. lactose 5. sucrose 6. maltose glucose Honey: fructose Milk: galactose Milk: lactose Greens: maltose Corn syrup: glucose Ribose and Deoxyribose: sugars in RNA and DNA Three types of Complex Carbs: (all polysaccharides) 1. Starch 2. Glycogen 3. Fiber 1. amylose 2. glycogen 3. Cellulose Potato, rice, carrot, corn: starch (seeds and roots) Glycogen: from animals Fiber: whole grains and fresh fruits Fiber: moves food through digestive tract, serves as structure for plants (in cell walls) Starch: long-term energy storage of glucose for plants Glycogen: short or long-term storage for animals
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