study+guide-W08-2 - INTRODUCTORY OCEANOGRAPHY (GS222/E232)...

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INTRODUCTORY OCEANOGRAPHY (GS222/E232) Winter 2008 Dr Michela Arnaboldi STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS SEAWATER 1. Why is the water molecule a ‘polar’ molecule? Because of the weak hydrogen bonds between water molecules. 2. What is a hydrogen bond, how does it form, why is it important? The bent geometry of the water molecule gives a slight overall negative charge to the side of the oxygen atom and a slight overall positive charge to the side of the hydrogen atoms. This is important because it gives water the ability to conduct electricity; also it allows water to exhibit cohesion, which in turn gives it its high surface tension. It accounts for many of water’s important properties. 3. Describe the unique properties of water (cohesion, high surface tension, high dissolving power, high heat capacity, high melting and boiling points, high heat of fusion and vaporization, density of solid less than density of liquid). Cohesion : hydrogen bonds hold water molecules together High surface tension : a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of the liquid. High dissolving power : dissolves ionic compounds by attracting oppositely charged particles. High heat capacity : the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of any substance by 1 degree. Pure water is 1 calorie/g/degree C, this is much higher than most substances because hydrogen bonds absorb a significant amount of energy before they break. : additional heat energy is required to overcome its hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. : ditto Density of solid less than density of liquid : water expands, volume increases by 9%. 4. What is the difference between temperature and heat? Temperature is a measure of how fast the molecules in a substance are moving. Heat is a measure of how much energy has to be put into (or gotten out of) a substance to change its temperature, or state (solid, liquid, gas). 5. Describe the arrangement of water molecules as they exist in the gaseous, liquid, and solid states. Solid: hexagonal shape, hydrogen bonds between all water molecules. Liquid: there are some hydrogen bonds, no definite shape. Gas: there are no hydrogen bonds and the water molecules are moving rapidly and independently. 1
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6. Define heat capacity and latent heat. Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of any substance by 1 degree centigrade. Latent heat is energy that is either absorbed or released as water changes state. 7. How can evaporation occur at temperatures less than 100 ° C? To gain the additional energy necessary to break free of the surrounding ocean water molecules, an individual molecule must capture heat from its neighbors. The molecules left behind have lost heat energy to those that evaporate, which
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This note was uploaded on 04/01/2008 for the course ENVIRON 225 taught by Professor Michaelaa. during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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study+guide-W08-2 - INTRODUCTORY OCEANOGRAPHY (GS222/E232)...

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