Kuhn-Ch. 8 - The awareness and acknowledgment that a crisis...

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The awareness and acknowledgment that a crisis exists loosens theoretical stereotypes and provides the incremental data necessary for a fundamental paradigm shift. In this critical chapter, Kuhn discusses how scientists respond to the anomaly in fit between theory and nature so that a transition to crisis and to extraordinary science begins, and he foreshadows how the process of paradigm change takes place. 1. Normal science does and must continually strive to bring theory and fact into closer agreement. 2. The recognition and acknowledgment of anomalies result in crises that are a necessary precondition for the emergence of novel theories and for paradigm change. 1. Crisis is the essential tension implicit in scientific research (79). 2. There is no such thing as research without counterinstances, i.e., anomaly. 1. These counterinstances create tension and crisis. 2. Crisis is always implicit in research because every problem that normal science sees as a puzzle can be seen, from another viewpoint, as a counterinstance and thus as a source of crisis (79). 3. In responding to these crises, scientists generally do not renounce the paradigm that has led them into crisis. 1. They may lose faith and consider alternatives, but 2. they generally do not treat anomalies as counterinstances of expected outcomes. 3. They devise numerous articulations and ad hoc modifications of their theory in order to eliminate any apparent conflict.
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