Lectures+20-22 - Lectures 20-22 1 Name three exceptions to...

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Lectures 20-22 1. Name three exceptions to Mendel’s Laws. Sex chromosomes, genetic linkage (don’t assort independently), recombination, polygenic, polyallelic, incomplete dominance, pleiotropy, epistasy, environmental effects 2. Define and give examples of: Pleiotropy One gene influences multiple aspects of an organism; e.g. cystic fibrosis. Epistasis One gene “stops” or modifies the effect of another gene; e.g. mice fur. Polygenic inheritance Multiple genes influence one aspect of an organism; e.g. skin color. Codominance Both phenotypes represented by alleles are expressed; e.g. blood type AB 3. How can genetic defects be passed on to offspring? Genetic defects may occur during replication, which can be passed on if they get into the germ cells. 4. What is gene flow? How is the rate of gene flow determined? Genetic additions to, or subtractions from, a population resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or gametes. Acts to homogenize populations because it causes different populations to maintain similar allele frequencies. Gene flow (m) =
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