G45 Midterm Study Guide Essays.docx - Global 45 Midterm...

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Global 45 Midterm Practice Essay Questions 1. How, if at all, did ideas associated with the European Enlightenment influence the revolutions that broke out in the Atlantic World toward the end of the eighteenth century? What other factors contributed to these revolutions? Your answer should refer to at least three of the revolutions in the Atlantic World. Introduction: - Define “Enlightenment”: The definition of Enlightenment tends to vary, because it cannot be reduced to one thing. There are many strands to Enlightenment, and therefore it should be thought of as the spirit of the age. This spirit is defined by a new willingness to challenge wisdom and authority especially the authority of the church. It embraces conduct inquiry and knowledge, and elevates reason. This is not to say that the age of Enlightenment was anti-religion, instead it was anti-clerical and respected religion as a personal practice. - Argument: In this paper I will be arguing that Enlightenment had little to no influence in determining the American, Haitian, and Andean revolutions in the Atlantic World, but instead had an influence in shaping the grievances that then would lead to revolution. (developments afterwards) Instead I would argue that the most contributing factor was the modernizing of European monarchies that began to impose on the light rule that these areas had been used to. United States: (1776-1783) - Ended British rule in North America and was the first of the revolutions in the Atlantic world. - Britain, being the big winner of the Seven Years War raised taxes on the colonies and established their own army abroad. - Popular grievances shared by colonists towards the British crown: democratic aspirations denied, high commodity taxes & land disputes. - Contrary to popular belief, enlightenment ideals of liberty, freedom, equality popular sovereignty did not drive independence because the Constitution and institutions did not reflect these ideals. - “We the people” = which people? Slavery still in place. - Revolution does not end slavery, but instead encourages westward expansion to indigenous territories. Haiti: (1789-1803) - The Enlightenment in Europe inspired monarchs to expect more from their colonies. For Haiti, this meant that France intensified the sugar economy. There was especially a growing discontent among wealthy colonist elites in Haiti, that resented the royal government’s interference in trade, taxation and laws. - One of the main factors that contributed to the Haitian revolution was growing resentment due to racial and social hierarchies. - Poor whites resented free people of color - Free people of color that were able to travel to France and came across enlightened ideals of equality and wanted to enforce them in Haiti. - At first, white settlers sought self-governance and freedom from the crown to control the island themselves. They also do not agree with France’s new liberal way of thinking (“all men are
created equal”).

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