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BIO320 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY CASE STUDY : BIODIVERSITY AND THE LOSS OF BIODIVERSITY AFFECTING HUMAN HEALTH NAME : NURUL AISYAH HANI BT JAWAWI STUDENT S ID : 2017644708 SUBMISSION DATE : 1/4/2019 LECTURER : MISS WAN NOOR AINUN BINTI BT BAHARUDDIN
INTRODUCTION Biodiversity is the abbreviated form of two words ‘biological’ and ‘diversity’. It typically refers to the variation of life that can be found on Earth at all levels and it is the most complex and essential features that exists on the planet. Scientists estimate that more than 10 million different species exist on Earth but the greatest value of biodiversity is yet undiscovered. They also discovered and named only 1.75 million species and fewer than 20 percent of those are estimated to exist. Some studies said that biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, rather it differs greatly across the globe as well as within regions and is richest in the tropics. In the tropical forest, it cover less than 10 percent of Earth’s surface that contain about 90 percent of the world’s species. There are some parts of biological diversity such as the number of plant species, animals and microorganisms, the tremendous gene in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet such as deserts, rain forests and coral reefs, and also the ecosystems of terrestrial, marine and fresh water. Greater biodiversity leads to greater stability in ecosystems, species and also individuals. To illustrate, species with high genetic diversity and many populations adapted to a wide range of conditions are more likely to overcome weather disturbances, diseases, as well as climate change. Increased biodiversity also enriches human with varieties of sources of food and medicine. Biodiversity is usually explored at three levels which are genetic diversity, species diversity and ecosystem diversity. These levels work unitedly to create life’s complexity on Earth. The genetic diversity of plants, animals and other living organisms is what enables human to survive in this world. Basically, genetic diversity is the total number of characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. The greater the gene variation, the greater the likelihood of individuals in a population possessing the differentiated genes needed to adapt to an environment. It can also be a natural species defense system against disease and survival even under extreme weather conditions, but more
importantly, genetic diversity can help to eliminate harmful traits in species which maximizes opportunities for thriving in any environment. In addition, species diversity is defined as the number of species and abundance of each species living in a specific location. The number of species living in certain locations is referred to as species richness while abundance is the number of individuals of each species. About 1.8 million of different species classified on Earth and nearly 1 million are just insects. Every year, scientists discovered new species and estimate between 5 to 30 million

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