answers - Chemistry Atoms reactivity is determined by the...

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Chemistry Atoms reactivity is determined by the number of electrons that it has. If an atom does not have the 8 electrons to fill its outer shell, it will be more likely to react with another atom. Atoms will not react when they are stabilized by having their outer shells filled. Covalent bond – sharing electrons a. Polar – one nucleus exerts more pull of shared electrons i. Na-Cl b. Non-polar – neither nucleus exerts more pull on shared electrons i. O-O ii. C-H iii. An easy way to remember this is to think nonpolar and hydrophobic both have 2 o’s in them, so they go together Ionic bond – losing or gaining electrons Hydrogen bond – water molecules in solution are attracted to each other like magnets (slight positive charge of one hydrogen to slight negative of one oxygen) OR general attraction between partial charges of two different molecules. These are the weakest chemical bonds. Molecules that are hydrophobic are water-fearing, non-polar, and un-charged. Molecules that are hydrophilic are water-loving, polar, and charged. If something has a low pH it is more acidic than something that has a high pH, which would be more basic. The more acidic, the more H+ ions it will give up when added to water. Very acidic less acidic Lemon, wine, tomato, coffee, water, blood, bleach, lye The more hydrogen, the easier it is to dissolve the substance Energy Exergonic reactions – starting substances (reactants) have more potential energy in chemical bonds that final substances (products) - releases energy Endergonic reactions – starting substances (reactants) have less energy than final substances (products) - requires energy Example of potential energy: the charged ions of one side of a cell membrane Carbohydrates (chart)
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Lipids (chart) 1. A gram of carbohydrate contains 4 calories. A gram of protein contains 4 calories. A gram of fat contains 9 calories. a. Equation you can use with carbs and proteins: Calories from fat X 100 = percent of fat Total Calories 2. Unsaturated vs. Saturated a. Unsaturated – These are fats that are liquid at room temperature. Foods high in unsaturated fat are vegetable oils, nuts, and fish. Unsaturated fats
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answers - Chemistry Atoms reactivity is determined by the...

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