Exercise 1 (Shaper, Planner, and Slot Machine) SHAPER MACHINEWhat is Shaper? -A shaper is a type of machine tool that uses linear relative motion between the workpiece and a single-point cutting tool to machine a linear toolpath. Its cut is analogous to that of a lathe, except that it is (archetypally) linear instead of helical.Classify the shaper according to the reciprocating of ram -Crank Type - These are very common types of shaper machines, which is using to hold the workpiece on the table. The tool is reciprocating in motion equal to the length of the stroke desired while the work is clamped in position on an adjustable table.-Geared Type - Inthese types of shaper machines, the ram is reciprocating. The ram is affecting due to reciprocating motion with therack and pinion.The rack teeth are cut directly below the rammesh with the spur gear.-Hydraulic Type - In this types of shaper machines, the reciprocating motion of the ram is provided by the hydraulic mechanism. The Hydraulic shaper uses the oil under high pressure. The end of the piston rod is connected to the ram.Classify the shaper according to the travel and position of the ram-Horizontal Type – In these types of shaper machines, the ram is reciprocating. The ram holding the tool in a horizontal axis and reciprocate. This type of shaper is using for the production of flat surfaces, external grooves, keyways etc.-Vertical Type – In these types of shaper machines, the ram reciprocating in verticle plane.In this, the table holds the workpiece. Verticle shapers maybe crank driven, rack-driven, screw-driven or hydraulic power-driven.Classify the shaper according to the design of table-Standard Shaper – In this types of shaper machines, the table has only two movements, vertical and horizontal, to give the feed. That’s why it known as standard shaper machine.Here the table is not supporting at the outer end.-Universal Shaper – In this types of shaper machines, in addition to the two moments i.e. vertical and horizontal, the table can be moving in an inclined axis and also it can swivel on its own axis.Classify the shaper according to the type of cutting strokePush cut Shaper Machine - In this types of shaper machines, the metal is removed in the forward motion of the ram. This is commonly used types of shaper machines.Draw cut Shaper Machine - In this types of shaper machines, the metal is removed in the backward motion of the ram. In this shaper, the tool is fixed in the tool head in the reverse direction so that it provides the cutting action in the reverse stroke of the ram.
Exercise 1 (Shaper, Planner, and Slot Machine) List the different types of parts involved in the shaperBase - The base is the necessary bed or support required for all machines tools.