EGYPT AND THE BRONZE AGE 95000-1200 BCE)•Bronze Age civilization also arose in the Nile River Valley•The role that people played in the development of civilization was heavily influenced by geography•Geographical characteristics of Egypt and Mesopotamia were very different•Egypt's geographical isolation created political unity○Old Kingdom○Middle Kingdom○New Kingdom•Egyptian history passed relatively smoothly through 3 periods•By 3000 BCE, Egypt had become unified under a single, all powerful ruler○Egyptian civilization arose in the context of a major river valley○In Egypt, life revolved around the river even more than it did in Mesopotamia○Egypt was easily the richest agricultural landInundation (flood)Going forth (planting)Deficiency (Low water and harvest)○Life was based on the repeating Nile cycle resulting in three 4 month long seasons○In order to forecast, they created a calendar with 12 months and 30 days eachLower Egypt - consisted only of the Nile deltaUpper Egypt - extended all the way to Nubia○Nile valley was divided into 2 sections○Egypt was then divided into 42 smaller districts called NOMES○Egypt was generally isolated from foreign contact and was marked by cultural continuity.○They were supremely optimistic○Thought that foreigners were not quite human•GEOGRAPHY AND CULTURE○Pharos - Egyptian ruler. Came from the word meaning "great house"Characterized by distinctive pottery, made without a wheel. Reddish brown bodies with black rims○Bardarian Culture (4500-3800 BCE○The succeeding culture was called the Naqada I culture (4500-3500 BCE)○Carved stone ceremonial maceheads indicated particular prestige.○Society became further differentiated as a result of an increasing obsession with status○During the Maadian culture, ceremonies outside of the settlement area were used with grave goods. This suggested a belief in the afterlife.•THE ORIGIN OF THE EGYPTIANS○Graves of rulers in Upper Egypt were marked by very rich grave goods. This indicated status.