Typed Notes for Chapter 17

Typed Notes for Chapter 17 - Typed Notes for Chapter 17...

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Typed Notes for Chapter 17 17.1 Acid is any substances that, when dissolved in water increased the concentration of hydrogen ions, H + Base is any substance that increased the concentration of hydroxide ions, OH - when dissolved in water Acids and bases can be divided roughly into those that are strong electrolytes and those that are weak electrolytes An H + ion—the nucleus of the hydrogen atom—cannot exist in water. When an acid is dissolved in water, the proton donated by the acid combines with water to produce the hydronium ion, H 3 O + , and similar ions. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of many weak acids and bases, often called ionization constants, are a measure of the extent to which these substances ionize in water Ionization constants are a reflection of acid and base strength Acids or bases that ionize extensively, with K > 1, are referred to as strong acids or bases Acids or bases that do not ionize extensively, with K > 1, are referred to as weak acids or bases 17.2 Bronsted acid is any substance that can donate a proton; it can be a molecular compound such as nitric acid Bronsted base is any substance that can accept a proton; it can be a molecular compound such as ammonia Monoprotic acids are all capable of donating one proton Polyprotic acids are capable of donating two or more protons Polyprotic bases can accept more than one proton Molecules or ions can behave either as Bronsted acids or bases and are called amphiprotic Water is amphiprotic; it can accept a proton to form H 3 0 + or donate a proton to form the OH - ion. A pair of compounds or ions that differ by the presence of one H+ ions is called a conjugate acid-base pair Every reaction between a Bronsted acid and Bronsted base involves H+ transfer and has two conjugate acid-base pairs 17.3 Two water molecules interact with each other to produce a hydronium ion and a hydroxide ion by proton transfer from one water molecule to the other Auto ionization reaction of water still conducts electricity to a very small extent because auto ionization produces very low concentrations of H3O+ and OH- ions. When water auto ionizes the equilibrium lies far to the left side
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Typed Notes for Chapter 17 - Typed Notes for Chapter 17...

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